As human beings, we have the tendency to make sense through our own interpretation and formation of ‘signs’. According to the American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce, ‘we think only in signs’ (Peirce 1931-58, 2.302), which is undoubtedly true. Signs generally take the form of words, images, sounds, smells, tastes, objects or sometimes acts. This means that anything could possibly be considered as a sign, as long as someone interprets it as referring for something other than itself – ‘signifying’. The main concerns of semiotics is the significant use of signs. For Ferdinand de Saussure, who was born in 1857 in Geneva, ‘semiology’ was ‘a science which studies the role of signs as part of social life’. The Swiss, who was skilled as a historical linguist and semiotician, who’s ideas were the starting points for many important development in the twentieth century in both linguistics and semiology. He is now recognised as the initiator of modern linguistics, since his death in 1913.
Saussure was the first who had accentuated the importance of looking at language as an incredible happening in the history of human being inventions. Saussure’s model is mainly concerned with linguistics given that he was a linguist, and was the one who originated with the “theoretic foundation to the newer trend in linguistic study”. Infrequently, some European scholars have failed to examine carefully Saussure’s views when dealing with a problem which is theoretical. Jonathan Culler (1976) says, “Ferdinand de Saussure is the father of modern linguistics, the man who reorganised the systematic study of language and language in such a way as to make possible the achievements of twentieth-century linguists. This alone would make him Modern Master: master of a discipline which he made modern.” Sign is the most basic element of language stated by Saussure in his theory. Therefore, language is a network of signs.