Air for instance, coal and diesel are major contributors

Air shed management is far more complexed
issue compared to water shed management because of the various environmental
and climatic conditions. Therefore, an integrated approach is required to
involve all concerned stakeholders through intense engagement with an objective
to design market oriented solutions. This would ensure the actions will be more
sustainable and self-sufficient. There have been various actionable plans that
have been designed by various institutions, however, this initiative would aim
to create required synergy and build a consensus amongst the stakeholders to
drive actions on-ground.

 The initiative
aims towards:

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·     
Developing an integrated approach that brings
together policy makers, industry, academia, community and civil society

·     
Building consensus and get buy-in from
stakeholders on actions for improving air quality

·     
Delivering voluntary commitments from
stakeholders towards reducing air pollution

·     
Influencing adherence to existing policies and
advocacy towards newer policies

The task force on Clean Fuel has adopted the
structured approach for identifying key issues and possible solutions for
addressing the polluting fuels and combustion sources of emissionsCombustion
sources contribute the most to air-quality in Delhi’s air-shed. Source
apportionment study reveals that 62% contributions to PM 2.5 arise from
combustion sources, including 100% contribution to NOx emissions from the
combustion sources (Mukesh Sharma & Dikshit, 2016). Health
impacts and exposure to pollution are also important criteria, for instance,
most harmful exposures are observed on the motorable roads with heavy traffic.
Characteristics of PM from different source are also important, for instance,
coal and diesel are major contributors of toxic PM. It is observed that the annual
average PM reduction of 74% will be required to meet the air quality standards
in Delhi. As a result, incremental actions would not have any impact on
air-pollution and comprehensive sets of actions are urgently required.

                                                                                                                 

The
key sub-sectors for the task force on clean fuel and proposed solutions for
them are elaborated under the subsequent sub sections. Highly polluting fuels1 such as petroleum coke (PC) and furnace oil (FO) are used by
industrial units, especially the Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), in the
country. Even some categories of waste such as tyre oil and used lubricants,
which doesn’t fall under approved list of fuel (for their use) by regulatory
authorities, are used as source of energy in some industrial units. Imports
of PC has reached 14 million tonne in 2016-17 (Department of Commerce- GoI, 2017)
which is a matter of concern. Countries like the USA and China have banned import
of PC. As per the DPCC notification under the Air (Prevention & Control of
Pollution) Act, use of PC is banned in Delhi2
(DPCC, 1996).
The ban on these fuels has further been extended by Supreme Court of India, to
the neighbouring states of NCR region, and the sale, distribution and use of
pet coke and furnace oil is prohibited in NCR from 1st Nov 2017.

                                                                                                                           

Also,
it has been assessed by IOCL and was noted by the Task force that removal of
Sulphur from PC/FO is not cost-effective. The estimated cost for production of
5000 ppm FO is around INR 40 per litre whereas the cost of production for BS IV
Diesel (50 ppm) is around INR 30 per litre (IOCL, 2017). In addition,
it was reported that no commercially viable technology is available for
desulfurization of FO from current sulphur levels of 3% (by weight) to 500 ppm
(See Annex 1).

                                                                                            

As
the use of PC and FO is already prohibited in Delhi NCR, it is recommended that
fuel substitution is facilitated by making sure that alternate fuel is available
and fiscal instruments are utilised to provide a policy push towards cleaner
fuels.

1These are refinery
by-products; with high Sulphur-content ranging 25,000 ppm; which directly
contribute to the particulate matter

2 Fuel Oil/ LDO/ LSHS with low
sulphur (S-1.8%)