Alexander Hamilton was born on January 11, 1757 at Charlestown, Saint Kitts and Nevis. He died on July 12, 1804 in Greenwich Village, New York City, NY. Between 1787 through 1788, he, James Madison, and John Jay wrote the Federalist papers anonymously under the pseudonym “Publius”. Alexander Hamilton was knew for many things, but he was most known for the Federalist Papers, originally titled “The Federalist”, which were the very structure of federalism. Alexander Hamilton had an arduous past, but that did not prevent him from becoming such an influential person and great example. He and his brother, James Hamilton Jr., were born out of wedlock. His mother was Rachel Faucette Buck, although she was technically espoused to John Lavien, he was abusive so she ran off to Charlestown and had children with James A. Hamilton Sr. His family could not afford school, but Hamilton once recalled that he went to a Jewish School(name unknown). James Hamilton Sr. left them because he discovered that Rachel was still espoused with John Lavien. Even though Hamilton wrote to him, he never heard from him again, although later his influence availed Hamilton’s arrival to the colonies. His mother died of a fever in 1768, and John Lavien took the inheritance that Rachel left for James and Alexander, and gave it to his son, Peter. James and Alexander went to live with their cousin for a while, but couldn’t stay because he commited suicide. They were broke without a roof over their heads. So he could fortify himself and his brother, Alexander became a clerk for Nicholas Cruger, a merchant who traded through the Caribbean and British colonies(the ones that would later become the United States). Cruger was able to see that Hamilton was astonishing at mathematics and some forms of business, even at such a young age(fifteen years old). He was easily able to verbalize with local ascendant entities and sea captains, and he kept excellent expense and profit ledgers(accounting papers). He additionally found deep interest in writing, and wrote letters and poetry in his local newspaper. In integration, he learned fluent French. When Cruger had to depart, he customarily left Hamilton in charge of the business, and he relished the work. Even so, he longed to go to the American colonies. In 1772, a hurricane broke out in his town, called the Great West Indian Hurricane. Many people there drowned, or had gotten sick from the cold brought by the water. Virtually everybody he knew died. Nicholas Cruger wasn’t in Saint Kitts and Nevis when the hurricane broke out. Alexander’s brother, James Hamilton Jr., was the only other person Hamilton significantly knew that didn’t die. In Hamilton’s words, he “couldn’t seem to die” After the hurricane, he wished to go to school, but saw no hope due to the fact that he had very little money due to his improper birth. Then, in an attempt to communicate to his father James Hamilton Sr., who lived in the colonies, he wrote a letter. The letter was about how the hurricane affected his life. Although he didn’t reply, the words “Yet hold, Oh, vain mortal!—check thy ill-timed ecstasy. Art thou so selfish as to exult because thy lot is blissful in a season of ecumenical woe?—Hast thou no feelings for the miseries of thy fellow-creatures, and art thou incapable of the soft pangs of sympathetic dolefulness?” appealed to James. He showed the letter to many people he knew, and then it was featured in a newspaper. So many people were astounded with Hamilton’s writing skills, people were inclined to pay so he could get to the colonies. A minister in Saint Kitts and Nevis saw his intelligence and inspired him to go to a college in the colonies called the College of New Jersey(present day Princeton University). With the avail of Cruger, the minister was able to secure an interview for Hamilton at the College of New Jersey, so long as he can be there. In October 1772, Hamilton went to the colonies of America, as an immigrant, with no plans to go back to the caribbean. Hamilton knew that he would need to learn a few things afore he could go to college because he had never had any formal education. Cruger and the minister thought he should learn Latin and Greek at Presbyterian Academy in Elizabethtown, New Jersey so he did, and he met many intellectuals who helped him study. By the summer of 1773, he was ready to apply to the College of New Jersey at the age of sixteen. Cruger and the minister arranged an interview for Hamilton with the president of the College of New Jersey, John Witherspoon, who had a reputation for being an excellent scholar. The interview did not go as planned. Witherspoon denied Hamilton’s request for speeding through college despite the fact that he understood the taught subjects better than the other scholars. Alexander was not accepted into the New Jersey College. Hamilton knew that he had to go to college to have a good life, and started searching for a college that would allow him to have independent study. He decided to go to King’s College(present day Columbia University). The president of King’s College, Myles Cooper, accepted Hamilton’s request and he joined the college. The way that Hamilton was able to get through college as fast as possible was to hire personal tutors to tutor him outside of school hours. He, like most of the other college freshmen, was considering studying to become a doctor. Even so, he decided to study in history and philosophy because he lost interest. In 1774, he got fascinated with politics and decided to get involved in the Revolutionary War. He reverenced King George III in some aspects, but undoubtedly was not pleased with the taxing, not being independent, etcetera. As a rebuttal to a newspaper article titled “A Westchester Farmer”, Hamilton made a pamphlet under the pseudonym “A Friend to America,” titled “A Full Vindication of the Measures of Congress”. This pamphlet was created to defend the Continental Congress. In 1775, Hamilton published another pamphlet titled “The Farmer Refuted”. It verbally expressed that violence may be needed to get Great Britain to listen to the discern of the colonies of America. That year, Hamilton had to defend Myles Cooper from an angry mob of colonists. Hamilton and a few friends from King’s College created a volunteer musket drill unit for the Revolutionary War. With the help of some veteran professors, they were able to train volunteers to shoot and fight. Hamilton, along with his math professor, studied artillery to prepare for war. On August 23, 1775, he and the volunteers captured 21 British cannons near a stockade at the tip of Manhattan island in New York. The operation was easy, due to the fact that there was only one warship defending the stockade. In March of 1776 he was commissioned as captain of the Continental Army, given the command of an ordnance company consisting of approximately one hundred men. The troops were always properly fed and well paid, and the weapons were well kept, and supplies were always high. He knew that the quality of resources could very well transmute the outcome of a battle. The troops were a component of many skirmishes in New York in the year 1776, and became a component of an assailing force in the Battle of Princeton, January 1777. Because of his exposition to the military, he met the commander-in-chief of the continental armies and the militias, George Washington. Shortly after the Battle of Princeton, Washington invited Hamilton to be one of his aides. Hamilton accepted this offer and was promoted to lieutenant-colonel at age twenty one. His work included drafting letters for the General addressed to congressmen, governors, and other adherents, and he additionally coordinated supplies and munitions movements. Overall, he was a critical help to Washington. He was in his staff for four years.Alexander Hamilton was a deep help with writing, but he did not take part in many battles, at least until 1781. He was, however, present at the Battle of Philadelphia, and the temporary fall of the Continental Army at Germantown. He was also with Washington during the cold and bitter winter at Valley Forge from 1777 to 1778. Other than taking part in battles, he was at Washington’s side when the British fled Philadelphia and at the Battle of Monmouth, both in 1778. During the Battle of Monmouth, Alexander Hamilton’s horse was shot while he was riding it. Miraculously, he went unharmed. After the Battle of Monmouth, American General Charles Lee was court-martialed for misconduct during the battle. Hamilton and Lieutenant Colonel John Laurens testified against Lee. Lee and Laurens had a duel, Hamilton being Laurens’ second, and Major Edwards being Lee’s second. During the duel, Lee and Laurens shot at the same time. Laurens wasn’t hit, but Lee was shot. Even so, Lee claimed he was unharmed and proposed that they fired again. Laurens was not opposed to this idea, but Hamilton and Edwards forbade them from firing more shots. After the eventful Battle of Monmouth, Alexander Hamilton was sent to confront the notorious American General Benedict Arnold. Arnold was known for surrendering his men right as a battle starts, as he secretly supported the British Empire. This affair did not persist, though.As a dashing and intelligent young man, Hamilton’s assistants often looked for woman who would be fit to marry him. Although Hamilton claimed he would never marry, he found love with Elizabeth Schuyler after meeting her at her house. They got married on December 14, 1780. At first, many people wonder if Hamilton really loved her, because Eliza’s father, Philip Schuyler was an American general, which raised his military connections, and Philip was also a rich man. Historians, on the other hand, think on the contrary due to the letters Hamilton wrote to Eliza.The last battle of the Revolutionary War took place at Yorktown, Virginia in 1781. The continental army obtained help from a sect of the French army called “Rochambeau”(named after a French General), and caused the British Army to surrender, marking the end of the Revolutionary war, with the colonies victorious. After the war, Hamilton became a prominent lawyer and tax agent in the early 1780’s. In 1786, Hamilton was chosen the represent New York at a national convention held in Annapolis, Maryland, to amend the Articles of Confederation. This was not taken seriously by the delegates. In 1787, Hamilton called for another one to be held in Philadelphia, where they drafted the U.S. constitution. Hamilton did not participate much in the first drafting of the constitution, as his ideas of a central government seemed radical to the other delegates. Even so, Hamilton signed the document, as he saw it as a step in the right direction.To solidify the beliefs of the Federalist party, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay wrote the Federalist Papers. The Federalist Papers are a series of eighty-five essays(originally planned to be about twenty essays), written under the pseudonym “Publius”, meaning public. John Jay wrote five essays. James Madison wrote twenty-nine essays. Hamilton wrote the other fifty-one. These essays convinced the people to ratify the American constitution.George Washington selected Hamilton to be the first secretary of treasury in 1790. He is considered to be the most influential secretary of treasury even though he was only in Washington’s cabinet for five years.In 1791, a woman named Maria Reynolds approached Hamilton. She claimed that her husband was abusive and she had no money. Hamilton and Maria ended up having sexual intercourse. This was at the time that Hamilton’s family was on vacation at Albany. This affair lasted from summer to fall. James Reynolds found out about this, and while in prison, told Hamilton’s political rivals about the affair. Hamilton revealed the truth, and the public didn’t think of him much differently. Hamilton’s first and last key reports suggested that the U.S. government should assume the debts of all the states. He thought the congress should pay interest for all the states debt. He also established the first national bank, along with encouraging congress to draft the mint act, which established a national currency. Hamilton wrote “On the Subject of Manufactures”, which stated that the U.S. should sway more to manufacturing and less to agriculture. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson disagreed with this, claiming that it betrayed the republican ideals of the nation. Jefferson and Hamilton disagreed on many subjects, most notably the constitution. Hamilton believed that anything that was not forbidden on the constitution was allowed, and Jefferson thought to the contrary. These battles were the structure of political parties in the United States.Hamilton became involved in foreign policies. He urged George Washington to send John Jay to England in 1794 and to France in 1797, in attempt to end the disputes between the countries. Hamilton resigned from his cabinet post in 1795, and became a lawyer as he had past experience.During the time around the election of 1800, John Adams insults Hamilton. He says,”That bastard brat of a Scottish peddler! His ambition, his restlessness and all his grandiose schemes come, I’m convinced, from a superabundance of secretions, which he couldn’t find enough whores to absorb!” Hamilton responds to this by saying, “…he does not possess the talents adapted to the Administration of Government” This is the reason that John Adams lost the election to Thomas Jefferson.In 1801, George Eacker makes a speech against Hamilton. In response, Alexander’s son Phillip, confronts him, and after being called “a damned rascal”, challenges him to a duel. In this duel, Phillip dies, leaving Eliza and Alexander in grievance In 1804, Hamilton publishes a series of essays against Aaron Burr, his political rival and friend. Burr responds to this by challenging him to a duel. The duel takes place in Weehawken, New Jersey. After counting to ten(one step every pace away they go), the two fire. Hamilton purposely shoots above his head, and Burr shoots Hamilton. He dies the day after, with Eliza by his side.