CHAPTER enriched by natural major and minor minerals the

CHAPTER #1

Introduction

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1.1 The Study Area

Abbottabad,
the city of pines, is located in the Hazara region of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
province, in Pakistan. Abbottabad is also known as the City of Pines, as you
can see a lot of pine trees everywhere in this city.
Abbottabad is located in the Orash Valley, 50 km northeast of the
capital of Pakistan, Islamabad. Abbottabad is the capital of the Abbottabad
District. The city is blessed to have a pleasant weather all year round.

District
Abbottabad is the headquarter of Hazara Division, positioned at an altitude of
1,225 meter, lies between 33° 50′ & 34° 23′ North latitude and 73° 35′
& 73° 31′ East Longitude. The District is spread over an area of 1967 Sq.
Km. Total population of the district in 1991 was 194,632. Study area is
comprised of the towns of Abbottabad with population 7,764, the Tehsil,
District headquarter & Nawanshahr (4,114) with 359 villages. The total
reported area of district is 179,653.5 hectares out of which 20.3% is occupied
by forest and 48.2% by agriculture, the remaining area has been occupied by
shrub land, rangeland & thin vegetation. Abbottabad is a well-known
touristic spot for its cold temperature, pleasant weather, heavy rainfall &
snowfall. Although the soil of the district is very fertile and enriched by
natural major and minor minerals the district has a very small land under
agriculture. Total area of the district is 178401 acres but only 63372 acres’
areas is under cultivation with 61396 acres as cropland. Total area under
forest is 5291 ha with further division of Reserved and Guazara forest on 2546
ha of the district (DCR, 1998.

District Abbottabad was once part
of Hazara division, which covered the present-day districts of Abbottabad,
Battagram, Haripur, Kohistan and Mansehra. The district takes its name from the
city of Abbottabad, named after James Abbott, the first deputy commissioner of
Hazara, who served from 1849 to 1853 under the British colonial administration
of India. The terrain of the area is both rugged and scenic, and its location
at the base of the Himalayas lends it a temperate climate throughout most of
the year. Muzaffarabad and Rawalpindi districts in the East, Haripur and
Rawalpindi districts in the South and Haripur districts in the West.

 

 

1.2        Physical features and Topography

 It is spread over an area of 1,967 km2
(178,401 ha)., and is located in predominantly mountainous terrain. The average
elevation of peaks in the district ranges from 2500 m to 3313 m ( Miranjani
peak, the highest point). These mountains form a part of the lesser Himalayas
and dominate the landscape (Pastakia,2004).

1.3        Geology and Soil

The
rocky ground of Abbtottabad is rich in minerals, containing deposits of
biotite, granite, limestone, phyllite, schite, slate, soapstone and quartz.
These minerals soil occur as residual deposits in the hills and and alluvial
deposits on the valley floors. Most of the soil is grey in colour (under moist
forests) and coarse in texture. The soil is formed by snow deposits as well as
water and sedimentary rock and is mostly dry framed for subsistence cropping.
Farm soil may be classified into four categories:

1.      
Loam and clay, mainly non-calcareous;

2.      
Loam, steep and shallow soils (humid
mountainous region)

3.      
Loam and clay, partly non-calcareous
with loess traces: and

4.      
Loam with stones, and shallow (sub-humid
mountain region).

The
inceptisols form level, productive basin plains, while the chromudertic soils
for, piedmonts and undulated, dissected gullied lands. The soils of Ayubia and
Bagnotar range from humid to sub humid tropical continental. The climate and
topography of the district is divided more or less naturally into three parts:

1.The
plains of Havelian and Rash valley in Abbottabad, suitable for vegetable and
fruit production;

2.
The mild hills of the Tanawal – Sherwan belt, well suited for livestock and
fodder; and

3.
The high hills of the Galliyat, suitable for tourism, frostery and some
off-season vegetable cultivation.

1.4        Temperature

  Due to mountainous area of Abbottabad,
Abbottabad’s summer season starts lilltle bit late and temperature remains
moderate. Temperature starts rising in the month of May and become high in the
month of June and July and the minimum and maximum temperature recorded in the
month of May is 19.67 and 32.41 respectively while the winters are
comparatively severe causing heavy rainfall and snow at temperature reach below
freezing point.

1.5        Rainfall

Abbottabad
is an active monsoon region. The average precipitation occurs during the month
of July and August which is about 60% while in month of June and September it
is unevenly distributed as 40%.

1.6        Population 1951- 9

Between
1951 and 1988, Abbottabad’s population grew from 319,000 to 881,666, amounting
to a cumulative growth of 176.2% and an annual average growth rate of 3.75% .In
comparison, the population of the province as a whole during the same period
grew by a cumulative 285.2% with an annual growth rate of 6.1%, while the
national growth rate stood at 6.1%. .

Between
the 1981 and 1998 census periods, the average annual growth rate for the
district amounts to 1.82%, compared to the 2.81% average annual growth for the
province. At this rate, Abbottabad’s population is expected to double by 2047,
compared to a similar increase by the year 2028 for the province as a whole
(MSU 2000: 11). The 2001 population of Abbottabad is estimated at 935,000 with
an average growth rate of 1.8%.

1.7        Rural and Urban composition

The
total population of Abbottabad was 881,000 in 1998.Acoording to 1998 census
Abbottabad’s urban population stands at 157,699 (17.9% of the total population)
while the rural population was 723,301 (82.1 % of the total).

1.8        Land Use

According
to the Kreditanstalt fur Weideraufbau (KfW) forest resource survey, the total
reported area of the district is 179,653 ha, of which 20.3% is designated as
forest and 48.2% as agricultural land. The remaining area consists of
rangeland, shrub land and sparse vegetation. The rainfall is heavily
distributed in the district with only 0.399% of the total area under
irrigation, compared to 11.1% in the whole Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and 14.7% for
settled districts in the province (Go NWFP 2001a).

1.9        Employment

According
to the census of 1998 overall unemployment was as high as 31.41%. By gender
31.84% of the districts men and 1.05% of the women are unemployed. In rural
area the unemployment rate is 30.45% while 33.5% of the people living in cities
are unemployed.

1.10      Women’s Role in society

Women
utilize many forest resources for cooking and heating. They play an important
role in fuel collection. In particular, the collection of biomass is the
responsibility of women.

1.11      Languages

The
primary languages spoken in Abbottabad is Hindko. In rural population it is
used 94% while in urban it is 75%. Other languages spoken in the districts are
Urdu, Pashto, Kohistani and Gojri etc.

1.12      Famous peak

Miranjani
(3,313m) and Mukeshpuri are the highest peaks in this district.

1.13      Parks and protected areas

Under
the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Wildlife (Protection, Preservation, Conservation and
Management) Act of 1975, two areas have been designated with the district:
Ayubia National Park and Qalanderabad game reserve. Both areas cover only 6% of
the landed area of the district.

1.14      Ayubia National Park

Established
in 1984, this park covers an area of over 3,312 ha.

1.15      Qalanderabad game reserve

Established
in 1980 with an area of 8,940 ha.

 

 

1.16      Education

Abbottabad
hosts a large number of public and private schools and colleges, including
Abbottabad Public School, Ayub Medical College, Army Burn Hall College,
Peshawar university of Engineering and Technology (Abbottabad campus) and
Pakistan International Public School and College. The city also hosts the first
private medical college for women in Pakistan, Women Medical College,
established in 1999. Its literacy rate is higher than national average.

1.17      Tourism

Tourism
is one of the main sources of income in the mountainous areas. Like many other
areas of the north, Abbottabad also benefits from foreign and domestic tourism.
When summer arrives, a large number of tourists travel to Abbottabad. The
popular tourist places in or close to Abbottabad are Ayubia national Park, Bara
gali, Shimla Hill, Dor River Valley (at Harnoi). Khaira gali,Thandiani and
Nathia Gali.

Other
than tourism,many people have settled in Abbottabad for educational purposes.
Further Abbottabad saw an influx of migrants from Azad Kashmir after the 2005
earthquake. People have also moved from Swat District and Waziristan when
operations were held against the militants.

1.18      Customs and Traditions

Abbottabad
is a well- cultured area, with a combination of modern and ancient cultures.
The religious bonds are very tight and majority of the people are fond of
Islamic traditions and they follow the path of Allah. The customs of the city
include Hujra meetings (sitting), the Islamic traditions are quite prominent in
rural areas and they have high moral values in the society.

1.19      Cuisine

The
people of Abbottabad like to eat in daily routine maize, wheat and rice. In
Rural areas, Desi Ghee and Lassi are mostly used. People of Abbottabad would
like to eat out since it is the only major source of entertainment for them.
There are many famous restaurants in Abbottabad including Red Onion, Usmani
Restaurant,Nawabs ,Green Valley etc which serves a variety of Pakistani dishes.
The Chicken Karahi, Chicken Korma, Sajji are very popular. The fast food chains
like KFC are also present in Abbottabad.

 

Further
the town in Abbottabad, Nawanshehr and qalandrabad have an old bazaar which are
famous for its Chapli Kabab.

 

1.20      Tourism

Tourism
is one of the main sources of income in the mountainous areas of Abbottabad.
Like many other northern areas. 
Abbottabad also has a benefit from foreign and domestic tourism.in
summer , a large number of tourists travel to Abbottabad. The popular tourist
places in or close to Abbottabad are Ayubia national Parkk, Bara gali, Shimla
Hill, Dor River Valley (at Harnoi). Khaira gali,Thandiani and Nathia Gali.

Other than tourism,many people have settled in Abbottabad for
educational purposes. Further Abbottabad saw an influx of migrants from Azad
Kashmir after the 2005 earthquake. People have also moved from Swat District
and Waziristan when operations were held against the militants