concentrated on the self-efficacy
component (Thomas, 2005, p. 156). Self-efficacy
is a student’s belief in their abilities to perform. If the student has the confidence or values the activity, there is the
desire to try even when achieving the goal is a challenge. Caring and inclusive classroom are learning communities that provide rigorous,
self-efficacious atmospheres (Perron, Gomez, and Testa, 2016, p. 9).
modification frequently is used in the
classroom setting. In some cases, his four-step
plan (Thomas, 2005, p. 156) is difficult to carry out but is the most effective in changing a student’s negative
behaviors. First, identify the behavior to
Second, arrange for the child to
try a new behavior. Third, determine a consequence
to decide rewarding reinforcement or
punishment. Fourth, manipulate a consequence
to ensure the desired behavior will be achieved more than the undesired
behavior (2005, p. 158).
Skinner’s theory came from experiments on rats and pigeons
instead of children. As described in his
novel, Walden Two, based on a utopian society, children who lived together for
the first ten years of their lives displayed a range of intellect but displayed some of the same behaviors. He saw
development as continuous increments of acts.
A child did not jump into acting a certain way because of age.
Bandura’s theory was
developed from observations of children rather than animals (Thomas, 2005, p.
162). His theory gave a truer picture of
the real world of child rearing and how to equip people with the necessary
skills to improve their lives. Bandura’s
theory did not offer information about children social and hereditary development
at different ages (2005, 163).
Based on educational requirements,
using one or both theories may be helpful in creating strategies for behavior
development in classroom settings. Educational
reform such as Common Core and rigor of instructions is making it necessary for
educators to rethink the classroom environment and the education of students. Self-efficacy and rigor are challenging, but deliver success for educators
who understand the structure (Perron, Gomez, and Testa, 2016, p. 10).