DESCIBE the need to do beneficence and do no

DESCIBE THE MEANING OF INFORMED CONST AND THE
IFDENTITY ISSUES RELATING TO IT IN RESEARCH ON HUMAN SUBJECT

There are a number of ethical
principles that should be taken into account when
performing research. At the core, these ethical principles stress the need
to do beneficence and do no harm 
as non-malfeasance. In practice, these ethical principles
mean that as a researcher, you need to:

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 (1) obtain informed consent from
potential research participants

 (2) minimise the risk of harm to
participants

 (3) protect their anonymity and confidentiality

 (4) avoid using deceptive
practices

 (5) give participants the right to withdraw from
your research

 

1) MINIMISING THE RISK OF HARM

Research should not harm participants. Where
there is the possibility that participants could be harmed or put in a position
of discomfort, there must be strong justifications for this. Such scenarios
will also require an additional planning to illustrate how participant
harm  will be reduced, informed
consent, and detailed debriefing.

2) OBTAINING INFORMED
CONSENT

Informed consent means that participants
should understand that  they are taking part in research
and  what the research requires of them. Such information may include
the purpose of the research, the method being used, the possible outcomes of
the research, as well as associated demands, discomforts, inconveniences and
risks that the participants may face.

Another component of informed consent is the
principle that participants should be volunteers, taking part without
having been coerced and deceived.

3) PROTECTING ANONYMITY AND CONFIDENTIALITY

Protecting the anonymity and confidentiality of
research participants is another practical component of research ethics. Participants
will typically only be willing to volunteer information, especially
information of a private or sensitive nature, if the researcher agrees to hold
such information in confidence. Whilst it is possible that research
participants may be hurt in some way if the data collection methods used are
somehow insensitive, there is perhaps a greater danger that harm can be
caused once data has been collected. This occurs when data is not treated
confidentially, whether in terms of the storage of data, its analysis, or during
the publication process .An alternative is to remove identifiers e.g.,
vernacular terms, names, geographical cues, etc. or provide proxies when
writing up

Therefore, you need to consider ways of
overcoming the problems, such as aggregating data in tables
and  setting rules that ensure a minimum number of units are present
before data/information can be presented.

4)AVOIDING DECEPTIVE PRACTICES

At
first sight, deceptive practices fly in the face of informed
consent. After all, how can participants know (a) that they are
taking part in research and (b) what the research requires of them if
they are being deceived? This is part of what makes the use of deceptive
practices controversial. For this reason, in most circumstances, dissertation
research should avoid any kinds of deceptive practices. However, this
is not always the case.

5)PROVIDING THE RIGHT TO WITHDRAW

With
the exception of those instances of covert observation where is not
feasible to let everyone that is being observed know what you are doing,
research participants should always have the right to withdraw from
the research process. Furthermore, participants should have the right to
withdraw at any stage in the research process. When a participant chooses to
withdraw from the research process, they should not be pressured or coerced in
any way to try and stop them from withdrawing.

 

DISCUSS
THE MAJOR ETHICAL PRINCIPLES RHAT GUIDE RESEARCHER IN THEIR WORK

Ethical
considerations in research are critically about choices and actions, especially
in decision making which distinguish between right and wrong.  It
determines the difference between acceptable and unacceptable behaviors. Ethical
standards will prevent against the fabrication or falsifying of data and
therefore, promote the pursuit of knowledge and truth which is the primary goal
of research.  Ethical behavior is also critical for collaborative work
because it encourages an environment of trust, accountability, and mutual
respect among researchers.  This is important when considering issues
related to data sharing, co-authorship, copyright guidelines, confidentiality,
and many other issues, in order for the public to support and believe in the
research.  Other guidelines such as human rights, animal welfare, compliance
with the law, conflicts of interest, safety and health standards and so forth,
must be followed by the researcher.  These ethical issues are greatly impact
the integrity of the research project and affected the chances to receive
funding if researcher cannot achieve this requirement.

Ethical considerations
are so important in research, so that many professional associations and
agencies have adopted codes and policies for the outline of ethical behavior
and guide researchers.  The examples of codes address issues is a honesty,
objectivity, respect for intellectual property, social responsibility,
confidentiality, non-discrimination and many others.  It provides basic
guidelines, but researchers will still be facing with additional issues that
are not specifically addressed and this will require decision-making on the
part of the researcher in order to avoid misconduct.  The resources on
this page address includes many of those issues and the case studies used in
these resources provide excellent examples of these types of issues. 

One of the most important
ethical considerations in research is the use of human subjects.  To
address these considerations, most institutions and organizations have
developed an Institutional Review Board (IRB).  An IRB is a panel of
people who help to ensure the safety of human subjects in research and who can assist
in making sure that human rights are not violated.  They review the
research methodology in grant proposals to assure that ethical practices are
being utilized.  The use of an IRB also helps to protect the institution
and the researchers against potential legal implications from any behavior that
may be deemed unethical. 

Examples of some of these
issues include voluntary participation and informed consent.   The voluntary participation requires that
people not be coerced into participating in research. It required of informed consent whereby participants must be fully
informed about the procedures and risks involved in research and must give
their consent to participate. Harm can be defined as both physical and
psychological.  Ethical standards also protect the
confidentiality and anonymity of the subjects. Good
research practice often requires the use of a no-treatment control group – a
group of participants
who do not get the treatment
or program that is being studied. But when that treatment or program may have beneficial effects, the
persons assigned to the no-treatment control may feel of their rights to equal
access to services are being curtailed.