Environmental the main characteristic of the mode of production,

Environmental issues have always been pushed away from IR theories’ agendas. But environmental phenomena that had occurred especially in the second half of the twentieth century has entailed an analysis of novel occurrences such as pollution, environmental degradation and disasters along with their increasing recognition, by IR theories. Naturally, Marxist theory as well, noticing a dependency between the occurrences and capital accumulation and globalization, started to implement its assertions with an aim to explain and find solutions to such problems. In this context, some certain environmental cases will be analyzed in light of fundamental Marxist understandings, further on in this essay. The distinctive character that shapes Marxist theory is its rejection of the parameters of contemporary conjuncture such as the status-quo that realism has accepted as an immitigable international order and liberal efforts to solve ecological problems through state cooperation, i.e. “global environmental governance”, in order to, in terms of IR theory, prevent the further legitimization of schemes and reflections of the underlying capitalist mode of production, in disguise of regimes. In Cox’s terminology, being revolutionist, Marxism is a “critical theory”, not a “problem solving” one. The driving force that is the maximization of accumulation and competition within capitalist system is the destructive factor behind the economic activities that entail excessive resource use and their means of mobilization, leading to global warming, pollution etc… As the main characteristic of the mode of production, the irreconcilable tension between “use” and “exchange value” that aligns with material and labor-value flows creates capitalisms contradiction between economic growth and external environment. By regarding only labor value within economic calculations, capitalism ensures that the ecological costs of production are overseen and natural disasters are perpetuated as “externalities”. In other words, there is no inherent feedback mechanism within capitalist system that deters environmental degradation. Gramscian influence also, in Marxist theory shows itself in terms of environmental issues as neo-Gramscianism. In general Gramscian scholars stress that power displays itself not only through the entities themselves, and the material resources under their control, but through their strategic relationship and alliances as well. Orthodox state-centric rule making for global environmental governance is challenged since international environmental rule-making is not solely the preserve of state actors, and businesses and states are most often in a dialectical alliance in a way that protects corporate core interests. Determining the limits of the actions of state and non-state actors, as they are embedded elements of the current structures and of the commitment to a neoliberal order, regimes in fact ‘set boundaries as to what is achievable within a particular social order’ (Okereke 2008, p. 29). Such structural constraints shape the terms in which some environmental decisions achieve success and some are bound to be severely oppressed. Interests, hegemonic power and field-shaping norms prevalent in global environmental governance are applied and legitimized  through policies, organizational and discursive tools within liberal environmentalism such as Green Economy and can be used as “passive revolutions” to fracture more radical movements against the system. Similarly, E.U. emissions trading system served as passive revolution designed to offset the radical idea of carbon tax. Furthermore, ‘the marketization of key climate governance instruments’, for instance Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism as well as the E.U. emissions trading system, further reflect the hegemony of neoliberalism and ensure the notion that there is no alternative to the market. With the imperatives of liberal environmentalism, states’ roles within regimes and thus collaborative decisions of regimes’ are regarded as tools for the commoditization of natural resources which make such resources more liable to exploitation and global capitalist competition.