Gilded find the backstabbing and corruption. The transcontinental railroad

Gilded Age (1865-1896) Coined by Mark Twain displacing the outside look of wealth to the corruption on the inside through his words that if you were to look underneath the thin film of gold placed on top of america you would find the backstabbing and corruption. The transcontinental railroad was introduced; few ruled over the nation’s economy through new technologies and businesses The railroad allowed quicker travel time, also lead to major corruption due to the few who ruled over the railroads and other large business – however teh economy was almost doubled, but people were ruthless to get to the top so if the best product for the best price you would become bankruptTweed Ring (1860s)Major player in the corruption of America; Boss Tweed and ring where a political machine in NYC misrepresented elections, graft, and vote buying ran the Democratic party eventually jailed for his crimes and died behind bars    Symbol of corruption, displayed the rule the political machines had over policy making and elections through the means of obtaining wealth and power in almost all states and cities. want from these machines led by wealthy and powerful individuals.                                              Pendleton Act (1883)     Congressional legislation that established the civil service commission which granted federal government jobs on the basis of examinations instead of political patronage thus raining in the spoils system Civil service reform that was created in 1881  by james garfield it      helped to create a civil service system which classified jobs                                           Homestead Strike  (1892) A strike at the Carnegie steel plant in Homestead Pennsylvania that ended in an armed battle between the strikers, 300 hired armed Pinkerton detectors, and federal troops; killed 10 people and wounded more than 60; on strike due to the brutality and wage drops that occuredhelp the populist gained support from industrial workers but overall ended the union movement                                                                           Haymarket Affair (1886)May Day rally that turned violent when someone threw a bomb into the middle of a meeting killing several dozen people; eight anarchist were arrested for conspiracy contributing to the disorder; although evidence linking them back to the bombings was nearly non existent; 4 were executed, 1 committed suicide and 3 were pardoned  Unions declined because people started to believe that the Knights of labour were part of the anarchistInterstate Commerce Act (1887)Congressional legislation that established the interstate commerce commission; compelled railroads to publish standard rates and prohibited rebates and pools; railroads quickly became adept at using the act to achieve their own end but it gave the government and important means to regulate big businessBarely helped to stop corruption within the railroads, had no real effects; made the people happy and lead to the later on more significant regulationsWabash, St. Louis & Pacific Company v. Illinois (1886)A Supreme Court decision that stopped states from regulating the railroads because the Constitution grants Congress the power to regulate interstate commerce; trying to regulate businessreformers turned their attention to the federal government which now held sole power to regulate the railroad industry, the interstate commerce act was null and represented the government’s involvement in the businesses to gain moneyrobber barons vs. captains of IndustryA man that was found corrupt within the business world would be labeled a robber baron – usually controlling a big business that lead to them being able to control the us politics; the captains of industry were the people/ business who helped the US, so if they were corrupt some people turned a blind eye – Carnegie, Morgan, Rockefeller were captains of industry but also fell under the category of being a robber baron; because they believed they were helping they didn’t believe they were in the wrongThese so called robber barons were found mistreating workers if it was little money (workers) for a bigger profit (business) or poor working conditions because they didn’t want to spend money on the workers, also they would do things like take over other companies or bankrupt a company- caused unions and the idea of social darwinism and questioning of ethics Trust (1870s)one company grants control over its operations, through ownership of stock to another company (The Standard Oil Company), it ended its competition by taking control of smaller companies or combine to reduce competition and controlling pricesStarted the Anti trust laws; tension with in the population due top the fact that ait gave all control to one company/ person increasing the gap in classesMonopoly (19th cenutry)controls distribution and involvements of a single product and one person or small group would greatly benefit due to their available leverage to raise and drop prices whenever they wanted; vertical and horizontal integration;  they dictated the prices of majority of all goods; government started to promote restrictions and laws to lower prices and to generate a better economy for the poor. Monopolies generated the validity of ideals such as Social Darwinism and trusts while downplaying the role of minor and poor citizens.Andrew CarnegieCreates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel; used vertical integration by buying everything needed for production; was one of the robber barons and gained majority of wealthJohn D. Rockefellerrevolutionized the petroleum industry; 1870- Standard Oil Company; he kept his stock and as gasoline grew in importance he became first U.S. dollar billionaire, and known as the richest person in history; used horizontal integrationHelped other start businesses, had majority of wealth and created tension with other owners with horizontal intergrationSocial Darwinism (late 1800s)Idea that people gain wealth by “survival of the fittest;” the wealthy were at the top due to their wit, intellect, and immense wealth and didn’t need to help the poor some social darwinism applied this theory to whole nation and races explaining that powerful people were naturally over others this theory allowed them to gain some superiority over others provided one of the popular justification for the US Imperial ventures for Spanish-American war allowed entrepreneurs such as Rockefeller to continue gaining wealth while the general public wilted away due to the lack of jobs Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890)A law to stop trusts or combinations in business; this was the landmark legislation because it was one of the first Congressional it tends to regulate big business for the public good; first the law was mostly used to restrain trade unions, as the courts tended to side with companies in legal cases; 1914 the act was revised so we it could be more effectively be used against monopolistic corporationsineffective as loopholes and flaws were found by business owners to continue generating immense wealth through the skyrocketing prices of their monopolized economies; first attempt by the US government to attack capitalists’ motions in an ever growing economy.sent messages that monopolies would be under attack due to their destructive abilities.Knights of Labor (1869)The second national label organisation the nights were known for their efforts to organise all workers regardless of skill level, gender, or race after the mid 1880s their membership declined for variety of reasons including the knights participation in violent strikes and discord between skilled and unskilled membersFrom collapse of the National Labour Union and was replaced by AF of L after a number bad strikes; inspire others to partake in unionsAmerican Federation of Labour (AFL) (1886)National Federation of trade unions; skilled workers led by Samuel Gompers for nearly 40 years;  AFL sought to negotiate with employers for a better kind of capitalism that rewarded workers fairly with better wages, hours, and conditions,  the AFL membership was also in entirely white and male until the middle of the 12th centuryUnion successful, with small goals, encouraged other unions –  nonviolent-Eugene Debsunion leader, one of the founders of the International Labour Union and the Industrial Workers of the World, he led the Pullman strike and was a five-time Socialist Party of America Presidential Candidate after becoming socialist in jailFounded organizationsGospel of Wealthwritten by Andrew Carnegie in 1889 established the views and responsibilities of the wealthy and elite; promising economic growth through work and determination no matter where you started in life; outlines the responsibility of the wealth to assist in charity to help others achieve success through their accomplishments; however, it would not be handed to them. Carnegie called for a new perspective on the wealthy and the responsibilities that accompanied it, inspire parks and other buildings;  cause peopel to strive to become like himNew ImmigrantsThe post civil war immigrants were groups and individuals coming from the southern and eastern parts of europe – Irish, Chinese, Germans; looking for jobs or getting away from the issues within the government; most fell into dangerous jobs that most people didn’t want that were high in hard labour and low in payBoost of population to almost three times the population before the immigrant movements; need for urbanization and the idea of heading west. Jane Addams & Hull houseSettlement house in Chicago who provided free education, because with the lower class living in Chicago there was awful living conditions Other cities start to include settlement homes  gave the lower class a chance to get out of povertyBooker T. WashingtonHighly educated; if you focused on skilled workers the people couldn’t be replaced as easily; wanted economic equality and should be focused on that instead of social equalityInspiration, reflection on the path of equality, opposite of du bois, others strived through hard work to gain an education and become a worker that couldn’t just be thrown awayW.E.B. Du BoisBois was an educated individual who wanted to create a system that would create equality for everyone, socially; wanted to help the top 10 percent to be educated and that would reflect on others Within the group that created NAACP (niagara movement); ex slaves realised they didn’t have to stick to the old ways that the white were holding them back from becoming the topBattle of Little Bighorn (1876)A fight between the whites and native Americans (custer’s last stand) 2500 sioux Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians defeated and killed more than 250 US soldiers including colonel George Custer; US government wanted native Americans to remain on the reservations and native Americans tried to defend their territory Lead to union of these Indian fighters proved tenuous and the US Army soon exacted retribution after the increase of hate towards each other, but gave hope to the indians, more wars and bloodshedBattle of Wounded Knee (1890)sioux practiced the ghost dance which the US government outlawed and the dispute over whether sioux reservation land would be broken because of the Dawes Act; Battle between the US Army and that you go to sioux in which 200 natives Americans and 29 US soldiers diedtension increased; spread more hate towards the whites from the natives; started the government to start laws as if sympathizing with the nativesDawes Act (1887)And act that broke up Indian reservations and distributed land to individual families left over land was sold for more money to fund US government efforts to civilise native Americans where they had to remain for 25 years to gain citizenship Assimilation act, decreased land size; gave left overs of land to whites natives resented the actGhost dance movementa new religious movement which was incorporated into numerous Native American belief systems;prophet Jack Wilson teachings, proper practice of the dance would reunite the living with the spirits of the dead and bring peace, prosperity, and unity to native peoples throughout the region. The practice swept throughout much of the Western United States, quickly reaching areas of California and Oklahoma; Native American tribes synthesized selective aspects of the ritual with their own beliefs; this process often created change in both the society that integrated it, and in the ritual itself.George CusterWas the whites leader during the battle of little bighorn who was killed during the battle by the siouxIncreased the tensions between the white and native americans and lead to the want of revenge against the nativesWilliam Jennings Bryan & Cross of Gold Speech (Gold vs. Silver debate) (1896)The democratic party’s division with the cleveland silver purchase act; that standard of gold was ” crucifying mankind on a gold crossIncreased support for the free silver and started to go back on the gold useFrederick Jackson Turner’s thesisThe frontier was officially closed in 1892 to the fact up on the land from the east to the west coast had been settled by americans the frontier provided a place for homeless and solved social problems. established liberty by releasing Americans from European mind-sets and ending prior customs of the 19th century; importance of the frontier in shaping American character; new teaching based off essay The Grange (1867) “National Grange is the Patrons of Husbandry the Granger” movement involving the alliance of local farmers into area “granges” turn politics and economics into their favour; founded Oliver H. Kelleywas successful in regulating the railroads and grain warehouses, but not with all their goals helped others see the corruption within the systemPopulism”people’s party;” Political party targeted towards the American farmers; wanting to regulate large business with high taxes for the rich and support labour unions and federal ownership of railroadsWanting to unite farmers with grangers to better the smaller people, and succeeded in uniting different racesJim Crow LawsWanted to stop racial mixing in restaurants, movie theatres, and public transportation, etc. from the end of Reconstruction until the mid 12th century with the justification of separate but equal facilities for blacks and whites the; generally ruled by custom, violence, and intimidation, used in the plessy vs ferguson trialThe freedom the Slaves were granted we’re basically revoked, this was their way of still excluding the ex slaves in social, economics, and political parts of AmericaPlessy v. Ferguson (1896)Supreme Court about the discrimination after reconstruction and the protected rights of African Americans; saying that as long as blacks were provided with “separate but equal facilities” these laws did not violate the 14th amendment provided legal justification for the JIm Crow system until the 1950s; gave justification for law enforcement to not allow full equality