“I had known it would become the American Gestapo.”

“I never would have agreed to the formulation of the Central Intelligence Agency back in forty-seven,if I had known it would become the American Gestapo.” President Truman expressed inadvertently that he helped create a Frankenstein monster were true as the CIA lurched off in troubling directions.President Harry S. Truman recognized the need for a post-World War II, centralized intelligence organization. To make a fully functional intelligence office, President Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947 establishing the Central Intelligence Agency. The National Security Act charged the CIA with coordinating the nation’s intelligence activities and correlating, evaluating and disseminating intelligence affecting national security.In 1949, the Central Intelligence Agency Act was passed which granted them more power by exempting them from limitations on expenditures.According to the U.S. Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, a covert operation is “an operation that is so planned and executed as to conceal the identity of or permit plausible denial by the sponsor.”The CIA and the U.S. were not justified in interfering in political operations of other countries because their interventions in internal affairs of other countries were influenced by own political and economic interests, it resulted in political dysfunction in intervened nations while breaking Human Rights Laws and the Liberal International theory and the cold war relations between the Soviet Union and the U.S. , along with their allies led to ignorance of ethical considerations of their actions. BackgroundBorn in 1913 in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala as a son of a Swiss immigrant that married a Guatemalan woman, Arbenz grew up as a member of the small Guatemalan middle class.The rigid structure the Guatemalan society offered few options for the local bourgeoise to climb the social ladder. Arbenz chose his career in the military. Guatemala was under the dictatorship of Jorge Ubico, one of the most ruthless, dictators of Central America. Ubico was an admirer of Napoleon and ruled his country as a fiefdom with the tacit support of the traditional landowning classes. Arbenz indifference towards politics changed after he met Maria Cristina Vilanova in 1939. She secretly read books on politics, and after traveling to Mexico she returned with several classic works on Socialism. Once married, her views on Central American social problems began to have a strong political influence on Arbenz. By the mid-1940s Arbenz was convinced that some changes were urgently needed in Guatemalan society. In the course of little more than five months from late 1965 to early 1966, anti-communist Indonesians killed about half a million of their fellow citizens. All the victims were associated with Indonesia’s Left, especially with the Communist Party (PKI) that had risen to unprecedented national prominence under President Sukarno’s Guided Democracy. The massacres were often coordinated or carried out by anti-communist sections of the Indonesian army, but they also engaged wider elements of Indonesian society – both people who had reason to fear communist power and people who wanted to establish clear anti-communist credentials in troubled times. The killings followed a coup which took place in Jakarta on the morning of 1 October 1965 in which six senior army generals were killed and a revolutionary council was formed, seizing power from Sukarno. For the whole of the New Order period, Indonesian authorities portrayed these events as a communist grab for power, which was to be followed by the wholesale slaughter of their opponents. The destruction of the PKI was part of a process that brought Suharto’s military-dominated New Order regime to power. The new regime abandoned Sukarno’s leftist orientation in foreign and domestic politics and embarked on a program of western-style economic development. The New Order never concealed the fact of the killings.The undefined memory of massacre was thus recruited to justify the New Order’s elaborate structure of political and cultural control and restriction. In 1954, France gave up its colonial claims on Vietnam. But even as France prepared to leave the region, the United States and other democratic nations continued to assert influence on the internal affairs of the country. Specifically, they forced Ho Chi Minh’s Vietnamese Communists to accept a treaty that divided Vietnam in half. Throughout the late 1950s and early 1960s, Ho Chi Minh established a Communist government in North Vietnam. At the same time, the United States government worked hard to support a non-Communist government in South Vietnam. Ignoring the 1954 Geneva Accords, which called for reunification of the country in 1956 after nationwide elections, U.S. officials threw their support behind an anti-Communist politician named Ngo Dinh Diem .This compromise, drawn up at the Geneva Conference of July 1954, temporarily divided Vietnam into northern and southern sections. The Viet Minh received the northern half of the country above the 17th parallel. The southern portion of the country below the 17th parallel went to non-Communists. Upon assuming power, Diem worked with the CIA to increase political support for his government. They agreed that one of the best ways to do this was to convince Vietnamese Catholics living in the North to relocate to the South. The situation in North Vietnam became very grim in the 1950s. After the Geneva Accords of 1954, Ho Chi Minh and other Communist leaders concentrated on building a socialist society in the North. North Vietnamese leaders subsequently worked to replace the region’s village and family-oriented economies with government-controlled industries and agricultural practices. The disputes in political ideologies was the US’ concern after the war as they tried to intervene or interfere in foreign governments.Supporting ArgumentsIn 1954, the US authorized the CIA to overthrow Jacobo Arbenz Guzman,the democratically elected leader of Guatemala on the idea that the country was about to fall in communist hands under the influence of the Soviet Union. ¬†“Fearing communism”, Eisenhower approved PBFORTUNE, PBSUCCESS AND PBHISTORY, supplying weapons and funding paramilitary groups to oppose Guzman,installing Colonel Castillo Armas in his place and researching for documents after Guzman’s overthrow to prove their point regarding connections to the Soviet Union communists.The real reason for the coup was the presence of the United Fruit Company,which was an American corporation owning majority of the land in Guatemala. Guzman wanted to distribute land to peasants, therefore creating a middle class. The UFC persuaded the US government that Arbenz was a communist who must be removed from power. Although, Arbenz did have the support of the Communist Party,only a small coalition and he did appoint communists in lower-level jobs in his administration. Due to the Cold War times,the President Dwight D. Eisenhower and the Secretary of State John Dulles “thought” that strict actions against Arbenz would roll back communism in Latin America. As Guzman focused on implementing agrarian reform,he expropriated 40% of UFC’s land to around 100,000 rural families but UFC was compensated.The operation overall failed as Guzman didn’t have connections to communists and also didn’t run his country in the political style.(McCann, T. P., & Scammell, H.,1976),(Barrett,2011)In 1965, the Indonesian army tried to overthrow Sukarno as the US and the CIA felt that the presence of the PKI(communist party) might drift him towards communism. The initial goal of the coup was to engineer Sukarno’s downfall and eliminate the PKI. Sukarno was the first president of Indonesia,leader of the independence movement and change the original parliamentary government style to an authoritarian ‘Guided Democracy’, in an attempt to balance power between the communists, army, nationalists and Muslims.He relied on the army and the support of the communist party along with increasing ties to China.He began accepting increasing amounts of Soviet bloc aid which was surpassed by Eisenhower’s aid as he feared Sukarno would be influenced by the communist superpower – Russia. But, Sukarno was a believer of central power and was an anti-imperialist wanting to maintain Indonesia’s independence and prestige.Through the 30 September Movement in 1965, Suharto(military leader) along with the support of the CIA backed officials, supported the mass killings of over one million Indonesians as he accused communists group over a failed coup to overthrow Sukarno and the PKI. The US committed gross Human Rights violations as they trained the Indonesian army for several years to orchestrate the mass killings, which were a part of their mission to gain superior status in the Cold War. US also provided the militarists in Indonesia with detailed lists of PKI members as they arrested and killed them. The US officials also provide weapons and communication equipment unconditionally as Suharto and the militarists left a dark phase in the history of Indonesia. More than a million passed through detention camps, and some were held for ten years or more. After their release, they faced continuing restrictions on their civil rights within Indonesia and their family members – including children not even born in 1965 – faced harassment and restriction.The result was a 32 year dictatorship which gave rise to economic paralysis,political chaos and and embezzlement of billions of dollars from the country. (Mann,1994),(Isenberg,1989)As World War 2 ended in 1945, tensions between the Soviet Union and the eastern bloc, and the United States and its NATO allies sustained as both superpowers wanted to influence banana republics and authoritarian regimes with their own political ideologies.A division between the communist North Vietnam and the Soviet Union against the democratic and pro-West South Vietnam along with the United States led to the Vietnam War as the politically unstable banana republic disputed over varying political ideologies. During WW2, Vietnam was constantly invaded by the Japanese and the French.After the war, the loss of the Japanese withdrew their forces but the French Emperor Bao Dai took over the southern part as Ho gained the northern section. Bao was replaced by Ngo Dinh Diem as president of the GVM. Kennedy had strict policies against Soviet Union and its allies as it pledged support for Diem and the south by training forces and supplying equipment beginning in 1960 as they supplied troops for war support to the south accounting to 553,000 in 1969. The NLF for the south won the Battle of Ap Bac as Buddhists Demonstration prevailed during the time.The US failed to defeat the overpowered Viet Cong and Min’s forces which led to their retrieval in 1975. The casualties resulting due to the war totaled up to 3.6 million people as countries in the Wars suffered economic dilemmas ¬†especially the US expenditure on the war accounting to around $170 Billion at the time.Therefore, the CIA’s covert actions were not ethical,including many failures and leading to dysfunction in intervened nations as the US looked to leave their mark on the political systems of the world.(Advameg, 2017),(Ahern,2010),(History.com Staff.,2009)Opposing ArgumentHowever, US covert operations did inhibit the growth of communism in newly-independent nations after WW2.