In this project, we examined the effects of
the temperature and the humidity of the environment to the efficiency and productivity of the
First of all, I want to talk about some
basic concepts. Heat is a form of
energy measurable in terms of temperature by thermometers. In a natural
environment, human experiences a range from arctic cold to tropical heat. And the
temperature of the environment influences the body temperature.
temperature is one of the fundamental
characteristics of the indoor environment. It can be controlled with the
building and its HVAC system. HVAC
is the system of heating, ventilating and air conditioning.
According to researchers, the best indoor
temperature for daily living is 293 K, 20 ° C or 68 ° F. We call it the best
condition because the indoor temperature affects several human responses such
as thermal comfort, perceived air quality and performance at work. In this
study, we focused on the effects of temperature on performance at our school.
Latest researches shows that extreme indoor
environmental conditions can affect health and productivity in a negative way. So
engineers are interested in improving indoor environments and their effects to
increase efficiency. We collect the existing information and tried to get new test
informations on how temperature affects productivity and efficiency. Because when
we know more about these effects, they could be included into cost-benefit
calculations for the building design and operation.
In this thesis, our microcontroller-based
embedded system is designed to monitor the temperature and humidity values of
the environment. In addition to monitoring temperature and humidity, we can
control the heat index too. Heat index
is a combination of air temperature and relative humidity. It also called humiture too. We designed the system
using Arduino Nano microcontroller. A Microcontroller
(MCU) is basically a simple computer. The difference desktops and
microcontrollers is that a desktop can run any number of programs and has
software support for different hardware components. Microcontrollers generally
only run one program. In general, this program is specifically written to
control known hardware components.
Arduino webserver monitoring system was
programmed using the C programming
language. The sensor data is read and processed by Arduino and it is displayed
to the user through the Gobetwino
We create the embedded system in two parts.
System design was the theoritical part. This part describes explaining the use of the
Arduino microcontroller and how it is utilized in the embedded systems in
practical part. We create the design and architecture model in this phase.
part describes the temperature and humidity
monitoring system. This part of the project is divided into two parts: Hardware
and Software. Practical part includes the wiring diagram and the source code
and it was the phase we did implementation and testing.
DHT11 Temperature and Humidity
We get the measurements of the class via
Arduino Nano heat and humidity calculation device which we build and encode. We
use Arduino Nano, DHT11 humidity and
temperature sensor to build a small circuit for measurements and ESP8266 Wifi module and Gobetwino for getting the data and save
them in a txt format.
To know about the components we use
Technically, Arduino is a
programmable logic controller. Officially, it’s an open-source electronics
prototyping platform. Basically, Arduino boards are able to read inputs
(ex. message, heath or light) and turn
it into an output (ex. Turning on led, activating a motor, display it in the
screen). You can tell your board what to do by sending a set of instructions to
the microcontroller on the board. For example, you can obtain some test results
using customized Arduino components for humidity and temperature measurements,
as we did in this experiment.
In this study we use
Arduino Nano which is a common type of Arduino to use. The major difference
between the standard Arduino Uno and Arduino Nano is the number of Analog Pins
and the USB Port We will discuss these components later in detail.
Inexpensive – Arduino boards are
relatively inexpensive compared to other microcontroller platforms.
Cross-platform – The Arduino
Software runs on many operating systems. It is not limited to Windows.
Simple, clear programming
environment – The Arduino has an easy-to-use software and it is flexible to
Open source and extensible
software – The Arduino software is an open source tool so programmers can add
Open source and extensible
hardware – Circuit designers can extend and improve it to make their own
version of the module.
Arduino Software is a user friendly programming environment: It allows the
programmer to create different programs and load them to Arduino
microcontroller. The software also called Arduino
IDE (Integrated Development Environment).
DHTXX series there are two types of humidity sensors. DHT11 and DHT22. Both
these sensors are Relative Humidity (RH) Sensor. As a result, can measure both
the humidity and temperature.
Relative humidity is the
comparison of the actual humidity to the maximum amount of water vapour the air
can hold in given temperature.
our project, we use DHT11 is a Humidity and Temperature Sensor, which generates
calibrated digital output. It can be interface with Arduino and it can get
instantaneous results. DHT11 provides high reliability and long term stability.
DHT11 Humidity and Temperature Sensor consists of 3 main components. A
resistive type humidity sensor, an NTC (negative temperature coefficient)
thermistor (to measure the temperature) and an 8-bit microcontroller. This
microcontroller gets analog signals from the sensors and converts them to a
single digital signal to send out.
Gobetwino is kind of a
“generic proxy” for Arduino. It’s a program which is running on your computer and
act on behalf of Arduino and do some of the things that Arduino can’t do on its
use Gobetwino program for display the data we get from the humidity and
temperature measurements with Arduino. And we save them as a text file on
DID WE DO?
Before beginning to monitoring the class,
certain requirements were set. The system is needed to be easy to use and the
user could remotely monitor environmental changes inside the class. Sensor data
required to be collected and stored for showing changes in the environment variables.
We had a fixed temperature to get reliable results.
The measurements accomplished by the data
communications between Arduino, DHT11 Sensor Module, ESP8266 WIFI module and
Gobetwino. Arduino’s Celsius scale thermometer and percentage scale humidity
meter displays the ambient temperature and humidity through Gobetwino display
and also record it as a text file.
We take the measurements on 30.11.2017 and
07.12.2017, 2 weeks consecutively, in smart class of Kadir Has University. We
take two measurement tests by Arduino each day. One is before the class when
the lecture didn’t start and one is after the lecture, while the students write
their reflection papers about the lecture and filling our survey questions.
We try to figure out their comfort level in
the temperature we fixed by HVAC system and their motivation in this
environment. First week we fixed the classroom temperature at 20.00 C ° and the
second week we fixed it at 27.00 C °. There were 26 people in the test group
and we neglected the genders and clothes while we commentate the results.
For this experiment, we divided the class
into eleven regions. We gave a number to each region and recorded the results
of each region separately. We ensured students sit in the same places in the
two days of experiment. At the end of the class we asked the students to write
a reflection paper about the lecture and to answer the survey questions which
we gave them before the class. We asked them for mark where they sit in class
on the graph we gave them and mark the spot they want to sit if it is possible.
A systematic approach has been followed in
measurement with the microcontroller based system. The results obtained from the measurement
have shown that the system performance is reliable and accurate. This project
has been completed successfully. We get our data with Arduino and transmit them
wirelessly to a processing sketch, where they are visualized for simple
analysis. So our goal of integrating all of the underlying technologies has