In through a political process. The reason public policies

In this essay there will be a discussion on why public
policies fail, the essay will start off with the definition of what public
policies are and followed by a quick understanding to help the readers
understand what the rest of the essay will actually be about. There will be
descriptions of what is the actual purpose of public policies and what they do
as well as ways on how to decrease the failures within public policy making,
and there will also be examples on some failures too. Evidence will be left to
support all statements.

Public policies are when the government maintains orders or
addresses the needs of its citizens through actions defined by its
constitutions. Public policy is a term which is used to describe the bunch of
laws, mandates or regulations which are established through a political
process. The reason public policies are in place is to address the needs of
people (White, N/D), (McConnell, 2014).

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Types of public policies are healthcare and legal policies.
Legal policies are very important in today’s society and are a crucial policy
which is taken very seriously. The legal policy is used to regulate everything
which is considered a crime and the policy is used on how will different crimes
be punished as well as who will be accountable for handling the punishment. The
way the government deal with crimes is an example of how the government deal
with public policies. So for example, if
an individual committed murder that person may possibly be punished with a life
sentence in prison and that is to keep the society safe and satisfy needs of
the society (White, nd), (McConnell, 2014). People are constantly challenging
public policies by protesting in return for changes to be in effect and
passionately debating for what people actually want. The societies most likely to protest when public policies fail, so when something goes wrong and
affects the society the people go out
there to fight for what they want. Public policies are in place to meet the
needs of the society and resolve problems, the policies do frequently change
and the reason for that is because the needs of people or people’s beliefs
often change. Challenges and protests of public policies is an important factor
of the government system because this stops policies becoming out-dated or
policies no longer being beneficial (White, nd), (McConnell, 2014).

When new policies are being made they get reviewed and
evaluated by specialists before they get moved forwards. Citizens are now
permitted to vote when a vote is needed to decide whether or not a new policy
should be established. Public policies are nothing more than a bunch of laws
and regulations used to keep orders and solve problems in the social sector.
There are several public policies to address ‘almost every aspect of your life from the food you eat to the air
you breathe and each aspect has a public policy which regulates it’ (White,
nd).

Public policy failure could be due to policies failing to
reach their original objective from the one given in the first place, so this could mean sticking to the
original object will lead to a higher
chance of success rates. If public policies are implemented as planned this
will also bring positive change to outcomes however this could be debatable as
the society’s needs may change during the making and development of the policy,
and if this is the case the policy will need to be amended. When approving a
policy and going ahead with the legal side should be up to its standards
implanted within the policy-making sure
it is one hundred percent legal and this
will also decrease failure within the policy. If a policy’s intentions are to
satisfy the needs of the society which are highly valued in that certain chosen
sector, that will also encourage the success of a policy and that is because
the society will have an impact of the policy positively (McConnell, 2014).

Governments throughout the world suffer from public policy
failure, and in the UK it seems that they suffer from poll tax and child support agency the most. Avoiding policies
from failing are difficult as it seems to
happen when policies have several goals to satisfy the society (McConnell,
2014). Public policy success is very important as it defines a government and
builds political careers, there have been several policy successes including
the national minimum wage and the privatisation of public utilities etc. There
are also several examples of governments having difficulties who are then
forced to go back to where they started immediately casing political problems
and difficulties, the policy failures also result
in waste resources, disrupts services and knocks down the public’s confidence
in the government as well as damaging some careers (McConnell, 2014).  Policy failure frequently lies in early decisions (McConnell, 2014).

To avoid policies from failing the government should
‘establish clear priorities that drive action’ 
there is only so much the government can actually do at a time,
ministers must set clear goals and objectives from the beginning or choices about where attention is focused will be
dictated by actions. It is very crucial that all policies have a clear plan and
have the correct systems to be able to monitor a policies progress,
responsibilities must be monitored closely and this is how to avoid quick
policy failure (Institute for Government). ‘think implementation from the
outset’ a lot of policies look good when just written down and planned but
cannot practicably be applied however this trick still puts the government in a
trap and leads to early failure. Before approving a policy and making the
decision on whether to go ahead or not is very vital and before approving a
policy, the policy does most definitely need to go through several factors and
be assessed to avoid wasting time, money and disappointment (Institute for
Government).

‘Creating space to learn’ it is never easy to get it right
the first time and that doesn’t frequently happen either; it is also not
necessary to try to get everything done
at the same to for immediate success. If policymakers
slow down and take a step back, so give more time to think, analyse, get
feedback and test it will most likely reduce the level of failure (Institute
for Government).

Understanding why policies fail is a task, it is not as
simple as it may look. The reason for this is because when policies fail the
people in charge cannot straight away figure out what caused the failure; if
this was the case these people could easily making amendments to achieve
success (McConnell, 2014). It could also be possible that the handlers of the
policy do not have enough evidence to be able to make any judgements on public
policy failures. Certain parts of information may not be available due to it
being personal if it is to do with individual’s health (McConnell, 2014).

There is a 4 step process which was created by Charles
Lindblom; the process splits the procedure into
four parts and the purpose of this is to make a policy more successful. are
four steps of a policy process which is used in the united states, the first
step is ‘problem identification’ and in this step it is all about resolving any
problems which there may be, figuring out exactly where the problem is coming
from and immediately solving it. This means not doing anything which would be
unnecessary for example purchasing a hammer to lift some heavy items (Grimsley,
n/d). The second step in the policy process is ‘identification of options’ in
this step, there should be ideas formed
and possible solutions so it can be seen where the problems lie. The third step
of the policy process is ‘selection and implementation’ this step involves
policymakers analyse all the possible options they have; and finally the last
step is the evaluation, this step comes after the implementation, all policy
choices must be assessed to decide whether they have reached the policy
objectives (Grimsley, n/d).

public policies seem to be introduced when a country is
going through some sort of crisis, so for example if there is a lot of crime
happening in a country; in order to stop the crime,
the government will introduce something different to keep the country safe and
problem free.  The public policy process is when an idea is created, implemented
and evaluated but it takes time to apply.

For example, all NHS
staff In the UK went on strike in a dispute
over their pay; this strike was one of the first strike by the NHS staff over
pay in over thirty years. Thousands of NHS staff participated in this strike
which spread across four days. This strike was a very risk because hospitals
had to make sure emergency care was covered. The purpose of this strike was to
send a clear message to the government in regards to pay and unfairness within
the current pay. After this strike took place ‘Ministers in England granted the
NHS staff a 1% increase, however only for the individuals without automatic
progression in the job rises’ (Triggle, 2014).

The government does tend to recreate policies on a frequent
basis, It has been said that policy
changed tend to happen in further education. Regional governance and industrial
policy (in the UK). ”since the 1980s there have been 28 major pieces of
legislation and 48 secretaries and no organisation has survived longer than a
decade”. Changing policies are an expensive process and that is why before
accepting a new policy it needs to be reviewed, also instead of replaced a
policy it could be tweaked if possible and if this is the case time and money
will be saved (Norris, ND).

David Cameron promised a referendum if he was re-elected in
2015 (Iyengar, 2016). When the referendum took place on the 23rd of
June 2016 a lot straight away changed and the government needed to start making
changes. 52% of the British population chose to leave the European Union and
the remaining 48% chose to stay, the leave votes won and immediately made
several changes; one example is the pound dropping by 10% against the dollar.
The European Union will now lose a member and there will be 27 members left. Britain exiting
Britain will trigger plenty of unexpected
events for the UK and in fact has already started (Shirvan, 2016). The Brexit
referendum was followed by negotiation
between London and Brussels and now the relationship between Britain and the EU will need to be worked out.
The UK being a part of the EU means we have
freedom of movement but now this needs to be discussed and settled as the UK
are leaving. Having the freedom of movement was beneficial for the UK as it
allowed the UK members freely travel around the UK and be allowed to work
abroad (Shirvan, 2016).

Britain has not yet officially left the EU as there is a
process behind it; the process of the leave can take up to 2 years and possibly more if all members are not happy with
final decisions, when Britain are happy and have their final decisions they
need to trigger Article 50 of the Lisbon
Treaty and the EU can reject the agreement if they are not happy with it.
Officially leaving the EU means the value of the pound will drop and the pound
will continue getting affected and
Britain will most likely fall into
recession (Shirvan, 2016). There are so many negatives for Brexit why did
Britain choose to leave? One of the main reason Britain chose to leave was that of the level of immigration, due to the
perk of the free movement of labour within the EU the levels of immigration
increase massively in Britain; British citizen felt like they were no longer in charge and wanted to leave
due to that. If Britain want access to the free movement of labour they need to
accept the free movement of labour; overall the decision between decreasing
immigration and increasing wealth in the UK has been sacrificed because of the
sake of immigration (Shirvan, 2016)

Brexit will have a lot of effect on the public policies
which we have in Britain; Brexit is a big deal and a lot of the current public
policies Britain have will need to be amended, tweaked or replaced. Before the
policies are completely changed, all policies should be looked at in depth and analysed
to a certain extent where it is then possible to make a clear decision on
whether to keep the policy, tweak the policy or completely replace it. Brexit
is a good example of policy failure, this just shows that changes can happen at
the least expected.  At this moment in time,
a lot of policies were no longer in use as they had no use (Shirvan, 2016)

In 2010 Universities in England was able to charge 9000
pounds per year in tuition fees from 2012, this caused a massive rage and all
students disapproved as was expected. This is apparently done as a
”progressive reform” said Minister David Willets and was supposed to be for
the best; it was done with intentions of universities having ”extra freedom
and less bureaucracy”, Mr Willet argued this ‘would bring ”greater choice for
students with stronger focus on high-quality
teaching” ‘  This change most definitely
caused a lot of controversies and no
student was happy; reason being was how can it go up by six thousand pounds
more (Coughlan, 2010).

The angry students
went outside to protest and it got very violent as windows were being smashed
and fights were taking place. Over 50,000 protesters came out showing their
anger to the government’s plan for
increasing the tuition fees. At this point,
it was being directed at the government that that government should have
considered the outcome in every possible way when making and finalising this
decision as it caused a lot of violence (Lewis, Vasagar, Williams. Taylor,
2010). This is also another example of public policy failure; the government
needs to listen to the society more before putting new policies into effect. As mentioned above several times
before approving a new policies the government does need to take in into consideration the opinions of the society;
the whole point of a policy is to satisfy the needs of the society so when if a
policy will have an effect on the society; communication needs to be made
between the society and government. Also before officially accepting a public policy, the government needs to predict the
outcome (Lewis, Vasagar, Williams. Taylor, 2010).

Overall it looks like a lot of different factors lead to
policy failures; however, there are
several solutions in order to decrease the high levels of failure. Having fewer
policies failing will save plenty of time, money and will keep the society
happy. In order for policy success the government needs to be up to date with
society’s needs as their needs are constantly changing as well as before
approving any policies, running tests, analysing ideas and predicting the
outcomes; changing certain ways and procedures will definitely positively make
a good impact on policies and will avoid time waste. There are so many reasons
on why public polices fail, there are numerous political and practical objectives
in implementing and conception of the policies which trigger a variety of
factors which then result in failure; there us absence of structures that
enable citizens or individuals to follow a policy consistently; political
groups within and outside of the government have entrenched interest according
to political analysts, so this is when the society actually take part in the
decision (protests); some people tend to just blame it for the government’s decision making which then, in the end, limits
its ability to change, and finally other say that policies often fail because
of its highly politicized nature.