INTRODUCTION as a substitute or supplement for human milk

INTRODUCTION

 

The composition of milk varies according to the mammal it comes from,
providing the correct growth rate and development of a young of a species, thus
for human infant, human milk is obviously more suitable than infant formula.

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 Over the years since the early
1960’s studies have been increasingly published to show components that
provides the infant with excessive nutrition, moreover breast milk also widely
recognised as a biological fluid required for optimum infant development and
growth,  the Colostrum found in breast
milk is the main component that is essential for all the recognised
functionality of breast milk .Published studies in JAMA pedantries show that
the longer the infant consumes breast milk the more intelligent they become when
they grow up.

The colostrum also helps manage infants with chronic diarrhoea, In 8/10
of children with chronic diarrhoea ranging from 9 to 3 years of age E COLI was
present in all 8 cases  , ASCARTIS
LAMBRICOIDIS in 4 cases and GIADIA LAMBIA in one ,

Health Organisation also published that optimum breastfeeding can save
the lives of over 820000 children under the age of 5 years. Breast feeding is
also a source of energy and nutrition 
for children aged 6 to 23 months during illness of infants it also reduces
mortality among children who are malnourished, thus babies whom are fed breast
milk are less likely to be overweight or obese.

Globally,
only 38% of infants are exclusively breastfed and Botswana’s extensive
breastfeeding rates stands at 20%.Decision to breastfeeding is widely influenced
by many factors, they can be of maternal factors e.g., stress anxiety may
decrease production and milk ejection reflex, separation of mother and child
(e.g. return to work or school), hormonal imbalance (thyroid gland, polycystic
ovary and diabetes type one and two). Other factors can be the infant factors
e.g. baby refusing the nipple due to it being large (flat nipple), baby
sleeping for long periods or does not wake up (prematurity, certain
medication). But mostly healthy mothers tend to breast feed their babies breast
milk because it is cheap, and helps the child and the mother to connect.

Infant
formula was created by a scientist called Justus von Liebig in the 1800’s, it
was made as a substitute or supplement for human milk for mothers who chose not
to breast feed or cannot do so exclusively. It was also created for infants
whom breastfeeding is medically unfit or those with born error of metabolism
Infant formulas manufactured to mimic the nutritional composition of human milk
for the growth and development of infants.

These
formulas are made from cow’s milk and soy milk. Soy milk based formulas are
made from soy proteins with added vegetable oil corn syrup and sucrose(for
carbohydrates) which are made for infants who are lactose intolerant to
allergic to the whole protein in cow’s milk and milk based formulas.

 

2. HUMAN MILK

Human milk
consists of proteins, fats, carbohydrates and other nutrients with many more
bioactive molecules. Babies who are fed breast milk tend to grow faster more
intelligent than those who are fed instant formula. Human
milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) possess anti-infective properties against
pathogens in the infant gastrointestinal tract, such as Salmonella, Listeria,
and Campylobacter, by flooding the infant gastrointestinal tract with decoys
that bind the pathogens and keep them off the intestinal wall.

2.1 COMPOSITION OF HUMAN MILK (PROTEINS,
CARBOHYDRATES AND FATTY ACIDS)

Human milk is made up of 3.8% of fats, 1.0%of proteins and
7% carbohydrates. As the infant grows their needs change and the makeup of the
human milk adapt to these needs. For example the milk is thinner with a high
content of lactose during nursing season there after the milk gets thicker and
creamier with high fats content as the baby needs for proper growth of infants.
During early lactation, the protein content in human milk ranges from 1.4–1.6
g/100 mL, to 0.8–1.0 g/100 mL after three to four months of lactation, to
0.7–0.8 g/100 mL after six months.

Proteins in breast milk are divided in to two the casein
and the whey proteins these are in the ratio of 40:60 respectively. Whey is
domain over the casein proteins that is because they are much easier to digest
over the casein proteins, during the early stages of lactation. Moving forward
to the hind-milk, the ratio changes to 50:50. Fats content change depending on
the maternal diet and to weight gain during pregnancy, so the more the mother
gains weight during pregnancy the more the fat content she will have in her breast
milk.

In distinction protein and fats, lactose is almost always
constant throughout the lactation period. It is important to keep levels of
lactose constant in breast milk because many carbohydrate-based bioactive
compounds such oligosaccharides, are attached to lactose. If the
small intestine does not produce enough of an enzyme (lactase) to digest these
sugar complexes, lactose malabsorption and intolerance syndromes can be
observed. Lactase deficiency malabsorption and disease are extremely rare in the
exclusively breastfed infant.