Kevin NgoProfessor Kathy ArnoldArt History 09124 January 2018Section 1Romanesque GothicSt. Lazare West Portal The Cathedral of Saint Lazarus of Autun, also known as the Autun Cathedral is located in Autun, France. The cathedral is famous for its Romanesque sculptures.Chartres West PortalThe Cathedral of Our Lady of Chartres, also known as the Chartres Cathedral is located in Chartres, France.Title: Last Judgment, TympanumTitle: Royal PortalDate: The Autun Cathedral where the St. Lazare West Portal is located started construction in 1120 and was completed in 1146.Date: The Chartres Cathedral where the Chartres West Portal is located started construction in 1145 with Romanesque architecture before changing to Gothic architecture in 1194. The cathedral was completed in 1220.Artist: Gislebertus is the artist that sculpted the the figures on each portal of the church. The patron is Saint LazarusArtist: UnknownThemes: Incarnation and Last JudgementThree themes in Romanesque work: Christ and Majesty (belief that Christ will come to Earth), The Last Judgement, and The Apocalypse. This was a way of instilling fear in the Pilgrims to spread of the word of Christ. Themes: The Last JudgementFigures: Christ in Majesty, Evangelist Symbols, Mary, St. Michael, St. Peter, Pilgrims, Adam, and Eve.Figures: Christ in Majesty, Evangelist Symbols, and ApostlesComposition: A heiratical scale places a large Christ at the forefront. The west portal has figures of Apostle, angels with halos, Mary, and Jerusalem to the right of Christ. To the left we see a weighing of souls. There are pilgrims wearing what seems to be satchels near Christ. The bottom represents the dead and death.Composition: The Royal Portal has figures of angelic beings with halos. The biggest figure is Christ who is sitting in the middle. There are two winged creatures on the left and right of Christ. At the bottom of the composition are men doing prayers from what seems to be the Bible.Other: The tympanum is an important innovation of Romanesque sculpture. Other: Section 2Romanesque ChurchThe Romanesque architectural style was introduced in the 10th century and lasted until the mid 12th century (1050-1150) when the Gothic architectural style took over.Gothic CathedralThe gothic architectural style was introduced in the mid 12th century lasting to the 16th century (1150-1400).Cathedrals are churches made of stone. They are a house of worship, community center, a symbol of religion, and God.Definition of Romanesque: in the style of the Roman Empire, classical, or eastern. Definition of Gothic: imposing visually, negative reference, or disliking of style appearance.Shape: Romanesque Church is built in the shape of the crucifix or cross.Shape: Overall soaring vertical interiors. Gothic Cathedrals are stone skyscrapers that are built in the shape of a crucifix or cross.Study and beliefs: Gothic Cathedrals studied philosophy, theology, and religion. System: A system of monasticism was in place for people to become members of an order of monks. This system in the church is called a monastery. System: Cathedrals had guild association for everything including the arts. Guilds provided social roles to people in politics, religion, celebration, ect.Characteristics: The churches are built to have a Roman inspired look. Characteristics of Romanesque Churches include: Stone masonry walls, rounded arches, and masonry vaults.Characteristics: Masons used three techniques to create the Gothic style: the flying buttress, the rib vaulting, and the pointed arch. The pointed arch allowed thinner columns and large open archways. These stone arches were important in providing a support system for a Gothic cathedral.Rounded Arch: Unlike the Gothic Cathedral, these buildings used the rounded arch which is the predecessor to the pointed arch. Because the walls were thicker, not much natural light was able to enter the churches leading to a very dark and gloomy atmosphere.Pointed Arch: The pointed arch (a distinct difference from Romanesque rounded arches) allowed thinner columns and large open archways. These stone arches were important in providing a support system for a Gothic cathedral to be built higher to allow as much natural light in as possible.Buttress: Romanesque walls are very thick and massive thus making buttresses not a significant feature. Romanesque buttresses are flat and square and do not protrude much past the exterior of the wall. Flying Buttress: Flying buttresses were usually used on the outside of the church. It supported the building by transferring the weight of the roof away from the walls and onto the flying buttress surrounding the edifice. Flying buttresses are also added to existing buildings to prevent them from cracking and collapsing. The flying buttress is a distinct style in Gothic architecture. This innovation allowed the cathedrals to be built at greater heights.Vaulting: Most buildings have wooden roofs. In churches, the aisles are usually vaulted.Vaults of stone or brick were used over time and have evolved into the pointed ribbed vaults used in Gothic architecture.Rib Vaulting: Ribbed vaults were used for the ceilings and worked hand in hand with the pointed arch. Ribbed vaults added a sense of height and lightness in the building. These vaults connected the stone columns throughout the building. It is visually spectacular and structurally graceful.Stained Glass Walls: Romanesque Churches did have stained glass windows that told stories from the Bible. The stained glass was not to the huge wall to wall scale that the gothic cathedrals have.Stained Glass Walls: The church’s exterior were filled with glass, often stained or colored that portrayed stories from the Bible. An example of a famous stained glass would be the Tree of Jesse which is used to represent the Virgin Mary.The walls of glass helped keep the entire building up and gave it form and structure. The glass provided a beautiful effect of colors.Light related to God in Medieval times. The glass walls allowed more light into the building. The more light that entered the building meant the closer to God you were.The stained glass windows were usually in a set of three windows. The glass is formatted by a grid and reinforced by lead molding.Guilds commissioned stained glass windows.Portals: Romanesque churches generally have a large central portal with many arranged windows.Portals have a hierarchical scale and the biggest figure is place above and in the middle.Romanesque portals are adorned with Christ in Majesty, Evangelist Symbols, and Apostles.Portals: Three door entrances called Portals were lined with sculptures of kings and queens on the right and angels adorning halos on the left. These figures are elongated to add to the sense of height of the cathedral.Portals have a hierarchical scale and the biggest figure is place above and in the middle.The Gothic style has a theme in Christ in Majesty. The gothic style was much more kind and gentler to their theology. Many of their figures are portrayed in a composed manner. The images on the portals convey an easy to understand story of Christ.Romanesque churches have two towers in the front and two towers at the crossing.Gothic Cathedrals have two towers in front with spires and two towers at the crossing. Influences: Romanesque has influences that include: Byzantine, Islamic, Roman, and Early Medieval.Influences: Gothic has influences that include: Byzantine and Islamic.Function:The Churches functioned as a holy house for pilgrims to practice their faith. Function: The Cathedrals functioned as a holy house for practice for royalty, government, the rich, and the high-end members of society. Regular villagers and pilgrims were allowed to practice the religion as well.Cathedrals also functioned as burials. Crypts and tombs can be found underneath the cathedral.Cathedrals aimed for a nave height of 144 feet. 144 is the number used in the Bible. Having the cathedral built at this height meant being closer to God. A cathedral is a sort of heaven on Earth.Section 3Romanesque Illuminated Manuscript Gothic Illuminated ManuscriptIlluminated manuscript: A book in which the text is supplemented by decoration, such as initials, borders (marginalia), and miniature illustrations.Romanesque illuminated manuscripts: Romanesque illuminated manuscripts have a huge focus on the Bible. These manuscripts contain stories and scenes from the bible. Fancier manuscripts contained scenes in illuminated pages, sometimes with several scenes per page. The Bibles often featured large pages and bound into more than one volume . Well-known examples of manuscripts from this era include the St. Alban’s Psalter, Hunterian Psalter, Winchester Bible, Fecamp Bible, Stavelot Bible, and Parc Abbey Bible.Near the end of the Romanesque period, commercial artist and scribe workshops were notable and illumination along with books became more widely available to ordinary people and clergy.Title: St. Alban’s Psalter The Albani Psalter or the Psalter of Christina of Markyate and is an illuminated manuscript Date: Created at St Alban’s Abbey in the 12th century. Artist: UnknownElements of architecture: The manuscript features a grand amount of decor, over 40 pages full of miniatures, and contains innovations that lasted throughout the Middle Ages .Title: Hunterian PsalterThe Hunterian Psalter or the York Psalter, illuminated manuscript.Date: Created around 1170 in England. Artist: The artists are unknown. It is believed that it was created by a single master and a small amount of assistants.Elements of Architecture:The manuscript is a beautiful example of the Romanesque style. The opening of the book contains a well embellished calendar. The next 13 pages contain full page miniatures with two scenes per page: three pages of the Old Testament, six pages of scenes from the Life of Christ, and three pages from the Life of the Virgin.These are the earliest English miniatures to have gold-leaf backgrounds incised with patterns of lines and dots. Title: Winchester BibleThe Winchester Bible is a Romanesque illuminated manuscript.Date: Created in Winchester between 1160 and 1175. Artist: The artists are unknown, but close examination of the manuscript show that at least six different people worked on it.Elements of architecture: The Romanesque period saw a major focus of illumination in western Europe and moved from the Gospel Book to the Psalter and the Bible.Most of the art on the manuscript illuminations were left unfinished and some of the art were removed on purpose. The art appears in different phases of completion. They range from rough outlines and inked drawings to unpainted gilded images and figures complete. Title: Fecamp BibleThe Fecamp Bible is an illuminated Latin Bible.Date: Created in Paris during the 13th century. Artist: The artists are unknown, but there are four artists that helped in crafting this Bible.Elements of architecture: Each book of the Bible and the major sections of Psalms are introduced by a large historiated initial in colors and gold, with the exception of the books of Deuteronomy, Isaiah, and Haggai. In all, there are 79 extant historiated initials. The beginnings of the prologues have large zoomorphic and foliate initials. The beginning of each chapter is marked by a small initial in red with blue-pen flourishes or in blue with red-pen flourishes.