Manual particular installations, in certain circumstances monitors are mounted

Manual fire monitors are widely used in marine, offshore, industrial and
many other corrosive environments to stop unwanted fires. Fixed Monitors spend most of their lives stationary. However when unwanted
fires are perceived they can frequently be the only practical way of applying
foam or water to distinguish fire. Although simple in principle, fire monitors are sophisticated
engineering pieces of work designed to deliver a precise performance after long
periods of inactive. Just like another engineering challenge the design of a
fire monitor can take many arrangements depending on the exact hazard it is
anticipated to protect and the mechanism and technique of operation the
designer uses to complete the final layout. When designing a fire monitor the designer must balance performance,
operational life and ease of use bearing in mind the cost. It is vital thus,
that monitors are robust and will have a long service life, even under harsh
conditions.  Fixed fire monitors are
often found anywhere where there are considerable Class B fire risks whereas
mobile or portable fire monitors are frequently utilised to safeguard various
risks by moving the monitors around the site. Almost all industrial fire
hazards are subject to fire monitor protection, however some of the more popular
applications may include; refineries, chemical plants, helicopter landing pads,
fuel distribution depots and process plants etc… Although most fire monitors
are permanently secured to pipework and designed to distinguish particular
installations, in certain circumstances monitors are mounted on trailers that
can be moved from one fire hazard to another. But mobile monitors need a water
supply, and usually this is delivered by hoses or portable pumps. The jet
reaction force for a portable fire monitor can differ from few kg, for small
ground monitor to over a tonne for larger trailer-mounted units. Portable
monitors must be secured so that it cannot move once the full water flow and
pressure is applied. The design of pump pipes that make up a monitor is
critical as they serve several functions. They contain water or foam while permitting
the jet to be moved in both the vertical and horizontal planes, the pipes must have
good strength to resist pressure and reaction forces produced by the water and
they must be robust to accommodate the mounting of further items such as
levers, nozzles and hydraulic actuators etc.; all of this must be accomplished
with a design that is cost effective, has a tolerable pressure loss, will
resist corrosion and is not heavy. The design of a monitor is a negotiation
between cost, weight and performance.