People who feel the need to be superior are not victims of discrimination, it is those who discriminate that have the urgency of power and dominance. Due to the oppression of Hazaras, Hassan adapted to this intolerable behaviour and accepts his difference, allowing any mistreatment and abuse to happen to him. As Amir and Hassan walks towards their hill, Hassan is hit by a rock in the back, it was Assef and his friends Wali and Kamal, “He tipped his chin to Hassan, “Hey, Flat-Nose,” he said. “How is Babalu?” Hassan said nothing and crept another step behind me.” (Hosseini 42). In this quote, Assef insults Hassan by calling him terms like “Flat-Nose”. This quote is important because it shows that Hassan is not bothered by Assef’s words and he stays composed, not displaying his annoyance. Later on, this encounter resumes again on the day of the Kite Flying tournament. On the day of the Kite Flying tournament, Amir and Hassan victoriously cut their opponent’s kite and Hassan eagerly runs to go fetch the kite. Amidst his retrieval, Amir goes looking for Hassan only to find him in an alleyway surrounded by Assef and his friends once again. Amir watches silently as his friend gets raped, “Assef knelt behind Hassan, put his hands on Hassan’s hips and lifted his bare buttocks. He keeps one hand on Hassan’s back and undid his own belt buckle with his free hand. He unzipped his jeans. Dropped his underwear. He positioned himself behind Hassan. Hassan didn’t struggle. Didn’t even whimper. He moved his head slightly and I caught a glimpse of his face.” (Hosseini 80,81). In this passage, Assef’s form of bullying towards Hassan is very extreme and absurd. Being that Assef thinks of himself as the superior, it seems to be an act of hatred towards the ethnic group ‘Hazaras’ and an opportunity to easily victimize Hassan. Meanwhile, Hassan allows Assef to do so while not resisting or defending himself due to his mindset that these acts are acceptable because he is a Hazara. Hassan, a now victim of rape, experiences an unforgettable moment, an act of hatred becomes the root of his life changing and future sufferings. Secondly, Hassan is not the only one to be a victim of discrimination, despite of the age, his son Sohrab suffers poor treatment from the Taliban. The central racial conflict in the novel is the segregation of the two ethnic groups, Pashtuns and Hazaras. Thus, it is accepted by the Afghan culture to favour the Pashtuns over the Hazaras, where Hazaras are the inferior race, always serving the Pashtuns. Sohrab, a son of Hassan was seized from the orphanage by the Taliban for their own personal use, entertainment. When Amir reaches the Taliban’s residence in hopes of getting back Sohrab, the Taliban calls out Sohrab and tells him to dance, “One of the guards pressed a button and Pashtu music filled the room. Tabla, harmonium, the whine of dil-roba. I guessed music wasn’t sinful as long as it played to Taliban ears. The three men began to clap…The bells jingled one final time when he stomped his foot with the song’s last note. He froze in midspin.” (Hosseini 293). The importance of this passage is that it reveals the Taliban’s reasoning for keeping Sohrab was for amusement, seeing that they make him dance and ordering him to please their wishes, overall treating him as a jester. It is evident that Sohrab is merely amusement for them, from the acts the Taliban wishes him to do and the way he is dressed up, “His head was shaved, his eyes darkened with mascara, and his cheeks glowed with an unnatural red. When he stopped in the middle of the room, the bells strapped around his anklets stopped jingling.” (Hosseini 293). Dancing while having bells tied to his ankles and a face of makeup becomes a humiliating and traumatizing point in time for Sohrab, which is seen later in the novel. Finally, for Pashtuns it is known to be disgraceful for associating with Hazara’s other than having them as a servant. Pride and reputation is heavily paid attention to in Afghan culture. When Amir and Sohrab goes home to America and meets the family, although General Sahib is glad that Amir and Sohrab are home safely, his main worry is what others will think. He says “While you’re busy knitting sweaters, my dear, I have to deal with the community’s perception of our family. People will ask. They will want to know why there is a Hazara boy living with our daughter. What do I tell them?” (Hosseini 380). This quote is important because it truly shows his thoughts on this situation. Upon meeting Amir and Sohrab, the first thing General Sahib worries about and asks Amir is what he is going to say to people. For General Sahib, it is normal for him to think like so as this mentality is ingrained into the culture as well as the people to have such thoughts about Hazaras. Seeing that Hassan had suffered in his lifetime, Sohrab will have to live in this society receiving the same treatment as his father did. It was a problem in the past, and still is present day; only, people back then desensitized discrimination and now more people are more sensitive to this issue and aware. Overall, discrimination results in various outcomes but particularly in The Kite Runner it is seen that racial discrimination leads to suffering and hardships. In the novel, a person’s social class determines their well being and existence. Being that Hazaras are the inferior race to Pashtuns, they are unprivileged and poorer as well. Hazaras live their life serving under Pashtuns. Although Hassan and Amir’s ongoing friendship began ever since they were babies, there becomes a disconnect in their friendship and bond because of their family’s social class differences. After all the years of friendship Amir has had with Hassan, Amir has a hard time acknowledging his friendship with a Hazara. Throughout the novel, Hassan innocently insists to Assef that he and Amir are friends, not knowing how Amir truly feels about Hassan and their friendship. Amir lets Assef’s words easily aggravate him and is quick to defend himself, “How can you call him your ‘friend’?” But he’s not my friend! I almost blurted. He’s my servant!” (Hosseini 44). Although Amir did not verbally say it aloud nor does he expresses to Hassan how he feels, he continuously has these thoughts leaving Hassan a fool. Another similar occurrence is when Assef rapes Hassan and Amir decides to run away, Amir says “He was just a Hazara, wasn’t he?” (Hosseini 82). This is important because it goes to show that Amir does not think Hassan as his friend but as company and purely his servant. What led to Amir having these thoughts? As Amir said previously “But we were kids who had learned to crawl together, and no history, ethnicity, society, or religion was going to change that either.” (Hosseini 27). Perhaps is it because of the social normalities of the culture or Assef’s influence on Amir? Being that Afghan customs discriminate against Hazaras, it had led Amir to believe in them himself. Amir has growing violent thoughts towards Hassan due to envy but regardless of Amir’s heartless attitude towards Hassan, Hassan innocently continues to stay loyal to Amir. Secondly, Amir acknowledging that he is superior to Hassan leads him to think that he is better that Hassan. Amir is eager to share his first short story that he wrote to Hassan until Hassan gave his input that clashed his story. Upon hearing Hassan’s input, in his mind Amir says “Taught by Hassan, of all people. Hassan who couldn’t read and had never written a single word in his entire life. A voice, cold and dark, suddenly whispered in my ear, What does he know, that illiterate Hazara? He’ll never be anything but a cook. How dare he criticize you?” (Hosseini 37). In this quote, Amir displays his frustrations that someone who is lesser than him corrected his story; more specifically, Hassan, someone who lacks an education, identified a mistake in his short story. Being that Hassan will “never be anything but a cook.” (Hosseini 37), Amir boasts to himself that he is more intelligent and implies that he is better than Hassan. As there are more incidences in the novel that Amir thinks that he is better than Hassan, Amir grows a hatred and jealousy for Hassan. Finally, the prejudice against Hazaras and the lower class induces violence. This social class injustice costed Hassan and his wife’s lives. While Rahim Khan left for Peshawar, Hassan stayed at Baba’s house and took care of it while he was gone. Rahim Khan tells Amir what happened when he left “Soon after I took my leave, a rumour spread that a Hazara family was living alone in the big house in Wazir Akbar Khan, or so the Taliban claim. A pair of Talib officials came to investigate and interrogated Hassan. They accused him of lying when Hassan told them he was living with me even though many of the neighbors, including the one who called me, supported Hassan’s story. The Talibs said he was a liar and a thief like all Hazaras and ordered him to get his family out of the house by sundown…. “–shot her too. Self defence, they claimed later—” (Hosseini 230,231). This passage is important because although Hassan persists that he is living with Rahim Khan and only taking care of the house, with the countless testimonies from the neighbors, the Talib refuses to believe him. The Taliban having that mentality of Hazaras being poor causes them to be skeptical of this situation, wondering why a poor Hazara would be living in a large home. Hassan’s refusal, protecting his position caused him to get killed. Many Hazaras along with Hassan get killed because they are seen worthless to the Taliban. Ultimately, the act of discrimination against social classes causes hatred and violence (i.e violent thoughts and deaths). Although, in today’s society discrimination against certain social classes are not as evident/severe as in the novel, it is still an issue that became normalized and silenced. For instance, the wealthy are more privileged and respected amongst society opposed to the poor. It is generally the lower class that suffer from this form of discrimination. When seeing homeless people, majority of the population assume they are on the streets because of substance abuse or mental health issues. But, this may not be the case and the public should be educated to not have this prejudice of homeless people. Sexism is another form of discrimination seen in the novel. Because there are gender expectations, many characters struggle dealing with these expectations and conforming to them. One of the biggest struggles for Amir is finding acceptance from his father. As a kid, Amir enjoyed writing and poetry, which in Afghan culture and his father’s belief was not masculine, it showed weakness. Baba makes Amir do “masculine” things and things that he enjoys. He signs Amir up for soccer and takes him to Buzkashi tournaments, forcing his own hobbies on to Amir. When Amir wins at a game called “Battle of the Poems” at school, he goes to tell Baba, “I told Baba about it later that night, but he just nodded, muttered, “Good.”” (Hosseini 20). This is important because instead of supporting Amir and his interests, he is ashamed of them. Later that evening Amir heard Baba say to Rahim Khan “If I hadn’t seen the doctor pull him out of my wife with my own eyes, I’d never believe he’s my son.” (Hosseini 25). Baba who is more traditional, follow gender expectations society has set, where males are only supposed to have a certain set of interests otherwise they are not masculine. Therefore, it is unfair for Amir to continue to seek his father’s acceptance and acknowledgement because it only results in pain and hatred. Amir experiences pain and insecurities trying to chase his father’s expectations, causing hatred to form on himself and society’s rules. Secondly, the Taliban believe that they are superior and violate their authority, creating rules to torment women. When Hassan’s wife, Farzana went to the market “She asked the vendor how much the potatoes cost, but he did not hear her, I think he had a deaf ear. So she asked louder and suddenly a young Talib ran over and hit her on the thighs with his wooden stick. He struck her so hard she fell down. He was screaming at her and cursing and saying the Ministry of Vice and Virtue does not allow women to speak loudly.” (Hosseini 228). This is important because the Ministry of Vice and Virtue are targeting women. Not only is this sexism and discrimination towards women but it is abuse. Therefore, this incident causes hatred, both Farzana and Hassan feeling hatred towards the Taliban’s and their “rules”. Finally, women suffer more from culture expectations opposed to men. Soraya, Amir’s wife is frustrated that Afghan culture is more harsh on women. When Amir and Soraya are on a drive, Soraya says “Their sons go out to nightclubs looking for meat and get their girlfriends pregnant, they have kids out of wedlock and no one says a goddamn thing. Oh, they’re just men having fun! I make one mistake and suddenly everyone is talking nang and namoos, and I have to have my face rubbed in it for the rest of my life.” (Hosseini 188). In this quote, Soraya releases her frustrations to Amir. This is important because it goes to show how hard and unfair the culture can be towards women. Women have to suffer and endure these customs that are set and are seen as a disgrace when they do not follow the expectations, whereas men are exempt from these cruel treatments from society. The inequitable gender expectations and male dominance in Afghan culture oppress women causing Soraya to feel disgusted by the sexist gender roles. Women in today’s society still experience sexism and are working to fight for their equality rights. It is common for women to encounter sexism in households and workplaces; in households they are expected to clean and cook while in workplaces they receive an unequal/unfair pay, meaning men are paid more. Therefore, many women have begun to become more vocal and expressive with their thoughts on gender inequality, gradually obtaining their rights as women. Hence, allowing future generations to live in a modern society without these issues present.