Preface of the United Nations, the League of Nations

Preface

 

Praise and
thank to Allah Almighty for the blessings of The grace so the writer was given the opportunity to be able to complite a
working paper.

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The purpose
in writing this paper is to fulfill the assignment of the Stage Preparation Together (TPB) with the theme of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The theme taken is peace, justice, and strong institutions which is
related to pancasila. Hopefully,
this paper can help the readers to expand their knowledge about peace, justice, and
strong institutions.

The writer realized that this paper still
imperfect in arrangment and the content, so the writer hope the criticism from
the readers so can help the writer in perfecting the next paper.

 

 

Jakarta,
December 2017

 

 

Author

CHAPTER IIntroduction A.   
Background
of the PaperThe position of the
International Organization as a subject of international law is now undoubtedly
the International Organization has the rights and obligations set forth in
international conventions which constitute a basic constitution. Therefore, the
United Nations as one of the international organizations also has the rights
and obligations as intended. An International Organization established by a
treaty with the principal forms of any instrument of its name will have a legal
personality in international law.The UN as an international
organization also has a legal personality. This legal personality is important
in order to enable the international organization to function in international
relations, in particular the interests of contracting, filing a lawsuit, and
having certain rights in performing its functions. The legal personality is
required by international organizations when establishing external relations
with both member countries, host countries, non-member countries, and other
international organizations. B.    
Purpose
of the Paper1.      Knowing the importance of the
History of the United Nations2.      Knowing the
purpose of the United Nation3.      Knowing
the reason for making United Nation C.   
Formulation
of the Problem 1.      What
does the United Nations currently do in an effort to resolve the conflict in
the constellation of international relations? CHAPTER IITheory
and Discussion A.   
The
History of the United Nations as an International OrganizationThe
development of the history of
international organizations is inseparable from the development of
international law. In the period of classical international law when the state
as the sole subject of international law, the development of international organizations
has not been so dominant in the relationships between nations.Guna prevent
instability, formed a cooperation called League of Nations backed by the
existence of disputes and war between people1.Prior to the establishment of
the United Nations, the League of Nations had been established on 10 January
1920. The Treaty of Versailles was the covenant under which the League of
Nations was founded. The arrangement of the League of Nations is contained in
the Covenant of the League of Nations on the Treaty of Versailles which is the
first part where it says that2:”Part I of the treaty was the Covenant of the League of Nations
which provided for the creation of the League of Nations, an organization
intended to arbitrate international disputes and thereby avoid future wars3″(Part I of the treaty is the
Covenant of the League of Nations provided to establish the League of Nations,
this organization is meant to mediate international disputes and thereby avoid
future wars). The initiator of the establishment of the League of Nations (LBB)
is Woodrow Wilson, president of the United States, during World War I
(1914-1918). The aim of LBB is to create world peace and security and promote
international cooperation. But LBB failed to resolve the disputes that arose in
LBB itself, so that the outbreak of World War II (1939) brought about a more
fatal result than World War I4. B.    
The
Causes of LBB FailureThe
main reason is that the League of Nations does not succeed in bringing all the
major nations into the organization. The United States, although active in
formulating the Pact, was finally not included in the organization because of
the senate’s refusal to grant the ratification authority of the Versailles
Treaty which included the establishment of LBB. The Soviet Union (Russia)
accepted in 1934 was expelled from the organization in 1939 as a result of its
attack on Finland.Pact
is not enough energies. None of its organs have the authority to decide. Out of
respect for these democratic principles, the voting system was taken
unanimously. In addition, the major powers, although permanent members, are not
given the appropriate role of status so they are not very interested in taking
responsibility5.As World War II progressed,
ideas arose to continue the LBB’s ideals. Then the talks were pioneered by
President F.D. Roosevelt and PM Winston Churchill who gave birth to Atlantic
Charter (Atlantic Charter)6,
which is the embryo of the birth of the United Nations. The United Nations is
the designation for an international organization initiated by Franklin D.
Roosevelt. This title was first used in the UN statement on January 1, 1942.The basis of the UN
establishment is the Charter of The United Nations 1945 or the UN Charter. The
Charter of the United Nations was drawn up by representatives of fifty
countries at a conference on international organizations held in San Francisco
from 25 April to 26 June 1945. The BNP was officially established on 24 October
1945 and the UN headquarters was established on land donated by millionaire
John D. Rockefeller Jr., located on the edge of the East River, as well as additional
land in New York City.

1 Mochtar Kusumaatmadja & Etty R. Agoes, Op.cit., P. 101

2 Ibid.

3 Ade Maman Suherman, Op.cit., P. 71.

4 Ade Maman Suherman, Op.cit., P. 71.

5 The Treaty of Versailles, http://missevi.wordpress.com/2011/09/15/the-versailles/
(December 26, 2017)

6 Boer Mauna, Op.cit., P. 216.