RESULTS:An influenza viral antigen (Cuhna & Connelly, 2014). Positive

RESULTS:An Influenza test is ordered when a provider suspects the patient has Influenza or if someone else in the family/household has been diagnosed with Influenza or is suspected of having it (Feemster, 2016, pg. 504). If the test result is negative, it would still be sent to the lab for PCR confirmation (Blosser, 2016, pg. 507). The Rapid Influenza test requires a respiratory sample collected on a swab from the nasopharynx or a nasal aspirate (McMullen et al., 2016). HPI:The patient presented with a cough, nasal congestion, sore throat, fever, vomiting, and diarrhea with an onset of 3 days. The physical exam findings of Influenza may include cough, nasal congestion, vomiting, diarrhea, macular or maculopapular rash, or fever (Feemster, 2016, pg. 504). COMPONENTS OF THE RAPID FLU TEST:The test detects viral nucleoprotein antigens in respiratory specimens, giving a qualitative result within 15 minutes (McMullen et al., 2016). One downfall of the rapid influenza antigen test is that it has a high number of false-negative results (Cunha & Connolly, 2014). Another issue is the sensitivity to detect Influenza A and B; sensitivity for B is lower than A (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017).Also, when Influenza activity is low, false positive results can happen as well (McMullen et al., 2016).These tests usually identify as low as 5% and as high as 50% of influenza cases (McMullen et al., 2016). According to the CDC, if an individual is suspected of having Influenza, even if you tested negative, you should not withdraw treatment (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017). If an individual tests negative, a viral culture PCR may be sent to confirm. These tests can detect either only Influenza A viruses, or both A & B, and either distinguish or not distinguish between the two (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017). There are no rapid influenza diagnostic tests that determine any information about influenza A virus subtypes (Cuhna & Connolly, 2014). ABNORMALS IDENTIFIED:Rapid Flu positive Influenza B positive and Influenza A negativeINTERPRETATION:The positive lab result test confirms that the patient has a diagnosis of Influenza B and not Influenza A. A positive result means that the test detected the influenza viral antigen, but it does not mean the person has the Influenza virus or they are contagious (Cuhna & Connelly, 2014). A negative result means that the test did not detect any influenza viral antigen (Cuhna & Connelly, 2014). Positive results are typically higher when Influenza activity is high and lower when Influenza activity is low (McMullen et al., 2016). You are more likely to have a true positive result if the individual it was collected on had an onset within 4 days (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017).PREVENTION/TREATMENT:  Influenza is highly contagious; it is easily spread through contact. Hand hygiene is key to prevent spreading. Prevention includes receiving the Influenza vaccination annually for 6 months of age and older (Kelly & Sandora, 2016, pg 319). It is important children receive the vaccine as soon as it is available before the yearly influenza season starts; they are a major vector for influenza transmission because they tend to contract the virus far more than adults (Blosser, 2016, pg. 490). When a positive result is confirmed, the recommendation/interventions for these positive results include medication treatment and supportive care. Medication treatment may include antiviral treatment, such as neuraminidase inhibitors; they can help shorten the time period and reduce the symptoms (Feemster, 2016, pg. 505). The reason why you would use antiviral medications over antibiotics are because antibiotics are not effective against viral infections like Influenza; antibiotics are generally prescribed for bacterial infections. Neuraminidase inhibitors are the recommended antiviral medication for treatment and chemoprophylaxis for Influenza A and Influenza B  (Feemster, 2016, pg. 505). However, the effect on antivirals change yearly depending on the virus and strains for the winter season (Blosser, 2016, pg. 508). Medications that are approved for treatment are Tamiflu (Oseltamivir), Relenza (Zanamivir),  and Rapivab (Peramivir). Amantadine and Rimantadine are only recommended for influenza A and not Influenza B treatment because it is not effective on Influenza B (Blosser, 2016, pg. 508). The dosages of these medications are determined by the age and weight of the patient.When a patient is diagnosed with Influenza, it is important to provide supportive measures as well. These may include keeping the child well hydrated with plenty of fluids, bedrest, antipyretics for a fever, or decongestants if they are congested (Blosser, 2016, pg. 508). Using a humidifier in the room that the child sleeps in is beneficial as well. Parents should be educated on what signs or symptoms to contact the office or seek further medical attention, such as difficulty breathing, dehydration, or muscle weakness (Blosser, 2016, pg. 508).