The important role in quality control issues of the

  The present study was carried out on the
plant J.adhatoda leaves to reveal the presence of medicinally active
constituents and its pharmacognostical properties. Pharmacognostical
and physicochemical studies, being reliable and inexpensive, play an important
role in quality control issues of the crude drug samples 11.
Current investigation was considered confirm the presence of phytochemicals in
different extracts of J.adhatoda.

 

3.1 Physicochemical characteristics

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The dried and powdered leaf was green in colour and
has a bitter taste in nature. The leaf powder has a strong odour.

 

3.2 Results of phytochemical analysis of
J.adhatoda leaves extracts

The medicinal value of
these plants lies in some chemical active substances that produce a definite
physiological action on the human body. The most important of these bioactive
constituents of plants are alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and phenolic
compounds 12.

The qualitative
phytochemical analysis of different extracts of J.adhatoda leaves was
showed in Table.1. The phytochemical analysis results revealed that the
presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, tannins, proteins, phenols and
resins in acetone, methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and diethyl ether
extracts.

 

 

Table.1: Preliminary phytochemical screening
of extracts of powdered leaves of

              Justicia adhatoda

S.No

Name of the compounds

Name of the polar
solvents

Name of the non-polar
solvents

acetone

methanol

ethyl acetate

chloroform

diethyl ether

1

alkaloids

++

+

+++

++

++

2

flavonoids

+++

+++

+

+

3

carbohydrates

+

4

glycosides

+++

+

5

cardiac glycosides

+++

6

coumarins

+

+

+

+

7

saponins

+

8

hydroxyanthraquinones

+

+

+

9

tannins

+

+

+

+

10

phlobatannins

+

+

11

proteins

++

++

+

12

xanthoprotein

+

+

+

+

+

13

amino acids

14

steroids

+

+

15

terpenoids

16

phenols

+

+

+

++

+

17

resins

+

+

+

+

+

18

volatile oil

+

+

+

19

fatty acid

+

20

emodins

+

+

Note:
+ ? present in small concentration;          
++ ? present in moderately high concentration;

          +++ ? present in very high
concentration;     – ? absent

In
our research investigation reported that alkaloids are present in the leave
extract of                  J. adhatoda. Alkaloids are a group of
naturally occurring chemical compounds and chief class of plant secondary
metabolites. They are bitter to taste and are toxic to other organisms 13.
Alkaloids are present in high concentration in ethyl acetate extract and the
concentration is moderate in acetone, chloroform and diethyl ether extract
respectively.

Flavonoids
are present in the leaf extracts of the plant. They are a group of polyphenolic
compounds that have potent antimicrobial 14, anti-inflammatory 15-16
actions. Flavonoids are free radical scavengers which prevent oxidative cell
damage and have strong anticancer     activity
17.In our findings the flavonoids were identified in very rich
concentration in acetone and ethyl acetate extract and least concentration in
chloroform and diethyl ether extracts.

Phytochemical
analysis result showed the glycosides and cardiac glycosides are rich in
acetone extract and least in ethyl acetate concentration. Glycosides are a
molecule in which a sugar is bound to a non-sugar moiety usually a small
organic molecule by glycosidic bond. A class of glycosides known as cardiac
glycosides have an important role in medicine because of their action on heart and
used in cardiac insufficiency 18.

In
our recent research studies coumarins, tannin, phenols and resins are present
in least concentration in acetone, methanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform
extracts respectively. Tannin has been used since past as tanning agents as
they possess astringent, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, antioxidant and
antimicrobial activities 20. Phenols are one of the largest and
most ubiquitous groups of plant metabolites. A number of biological properties
such as antiapoptosis, antiageing, anticarcinogen, anti-inflammatory and cell
proliferating activities are attributed with phenolics 19.

Based on this results
acetone, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts was showed the presence of
different types of phytochemicals when compared to the other extracts. When
compared to these five extracts, acetone having the very good phytochemical
profile.

 

3.3 Fluorescence analysis

           The ultra violet light produces
fluorescence in several natural products, which do not noticeably fluoresce in
daylight. If the substances themselves are not fluorescent, they may often be
rehabilitated into fluorescent derivatives or decomposition products by
applying diverse reagents. Therefore, some crude drugs are often assessed
qualitatively in this technique and it is an imperative parameter of
pharmacological evaluation.

Fluorescence is the phenomenon exhibited by various
chemical constituents present in the plant material. Some show fluorescence in
the visible range in daylight. The ultraviolet light produces fluorescence in
many natural products which do not visibly fluoresce in daylight. Some of the
substances may be often converted into fluorescent derivatives by using
different chemical reagents though they are not fluorescent, hence we can often
assess qualitatively some crude drugs using fluorescence as it is the most
important parameter of pharmacognostical evaluation 21-22.

Fluorescence analysis of leaf powder was
carried out after treating with several solvents. Fluorescence efficiency was
observed at 254 and 365 nm respectively and comparative studies are carried out
and are represented with colour changes role in visible light. The observations
in the Table.2 showed the variation in colour.

 

Table.2:
Fluorescence analysis of powdered leaves of Justicia
adhatoda

S.no

Chemical
Treatment

Day
light

UV
Light

254
nm

365
nm

1.

Powder +1M H2SO4

Pale greenish yellow

Violet

Violet

2.

Powder+10% Cuso4

Green

Purple

Purple

3.

Powder+ 1M HCl

Brown

Violet

Violet

4.

Powder+Diluted HNO3

Brown

Violet

Violet

5.

Powder+ 10% NaOH

Green

Green

Green

6.

Powder+1% glacial acetic acid

Green

Pale Green

Green

7.

Powder+Concentrated HNO3

Brown

Green

Green

8.

Powder+ Concentrated HNO3+
Diluted HNO3

Pale Yellow

Pale Yellow

Pale Yellow

9.

Powder+ 1% Iodine

Pale Yellow

Purple

Purple

10.

Powder+ Ethanol

Green

Pink

Pink

 

Based on the above findings the results finally
evaluated that this plant was very important medically because of their
presence of wide variety of phytochemicals. The extract needs further
investigation for the mechanism of action and potential to be employed in
various human ailments.