The period between 1918 to the start of World

The period between 1918
to the start of World War II in 1939 was called Period of Extremists.
Travelling back to Jallainwala Bagh; April 13, 1919, and I saw people being
gathered for the call of complete independence and in oppose to that the
British ruler hard-heartedly opens fire to a defenseless crowd without any
warning by General Dyer which had gathered at the bordered park for the public
meeting that was prohibition. People created chaos because of 10 minutes firing
killing more than 1000 people. Very few were able to flee. This event created
violence in the nation resulting in the strikes, fights with the police forces,
outbreaks on the government buildings. Instead of young people planning for the
Rise of Non-Cooperation Movement through nonviolence, they were now made all
the Satyagrahis to rub their nose on the grounds even making people crawl on
the streets. People in the nation were flogged and their villages were bombed
by the British officers. But somehow with the grace of followers, Gandhi and
Jawaharlal Nehru made the call of Non- Cooperation Movement, I saw them,
activists, refusing to purchase British goods and adopted the use of native
handicrafts and stake liquor shops. This was so different from my life because
this movement was spread countrywide. All this agitation became active among
the women and children too. I saw this as a mass movement. The British
government used all kinds of violent oppressive events to suppress it saw
movements such as Salt March in 1930, Khilafat Movement in 1919 and much more
made the final call for complete independence for India.

 

(1939-1947)

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The Second World War had
a deep impact on the British strategy towards India as British needed India’s
manpower to the war. To secure support from India, the British government made
the offer for the complete independence after the war to India but Indian
political leaders of Indian National Congress rejected the proposal. In the
period while Gandhi, Nehru and all followers were making plans for the Quit
India Campaign, the British government passed the Rowlatt Act in 1919 to
suppress the political violence. I saw that to oppose Rowlatt Act, The Khilafat
Movement Act merged with the Non-Cooperation movement under Gandhi’s
leadership. He issued a strategy implying out his philosophy of non-violence
and Non-Cooperation. He arranged an extravagant programme to boycott totally
British government including all goods, jobs, courts, schools, and
colleges.  On the other side, I observed
in order to make complete Independence call, the revolutionist were bifurcated
in various groups. In the meantime, Government of India Act was passed   It transformed a concept of All India Federation.
Provincial Autonomy was introduced. British now started playing community with
another community. Separate electorates were provided for Muslims, Sikhs,
Indian Christians, Anglo-Indians and Europeans and among others. The Act
discouraged the emergence of national unity, encouraging separation and
communalism. Hence, after the election in 1937 when Congress won the seats,
Mohammad Ali Jinnah, a Muslim revolutionist, and the Muslim league leader
demanded the Partition of India in order to make Muslims majority and priority
in 1940.  British realized that they have
to quit soon and thus I saw that when Cabinet Mission was imposed, Nehru
decided for an interim government but Muslims League was all-out and caused
public riots and a lot of violence. The Interim Government could not do
anything as the League did not co-operate and stuck to their demand for a
separate Muslim country—Pakistan. Even though Gandhi made efforts to stop the
partition happen, India-Pakistan Partition took place in 1947.  So with the last campaign of Gandhi and Quit
India Movement, India got independence from British rule on 15th August 1947
electing Jawaharlal Nehru as the first minister of India and Mohammed Ali
Jinnah to be the first Prime Minister of Pakistan.

 

(1947-1966: Republic of
India)

The time after the
independence of India was counted to be full of turbulent events for the first
5 years. It was the time I felt that people were getting out of the grief of
the partition of India and in the meanwhile, on January 30, 1948, a fanatic
Hindu named Nathuram Godse assassinated Gandhi with the gunshot. I felt like
the whole nation is filled with the sadness. In 1950, a new constitution of
India was framed and I felt like the pillars like Justice, Liberty, Equality, and
Fraternity was very clearly implied in the constitution for the well-reformed
structure of the nation. In 1951, India’s First Five-Year Plan was set out to
stabilize India’s economy and save people from starvation. This plan has
recognized control over a wide range of areas, including industrialization,
foreign exchange, import and exports, food prices, and the movements of grain
making India’s economy stable and rise of 18% in economy.(Republic of India,
Huang, pg. 7) Apart from this, I had seen the government making efforts to help
the Rural Community Development to help the farmers and peasants of the nation.
With the second five year plan of 1956-1961, the government had decided to
approve family planning but has laid back steps due to the insufficient financial
commitments.  The third five-year plan of
1961-1966 made efforts to accelerate the economic growth of the nation by
investing the industrializations. Even though India achieved independence from
British this period of 1947 till 1966 proved to be important in the history of
India in attaining complete independence for India.