Under perspectives, and social psychological perspective is one of

Under racism, we can see group of people beliefs, social
relations, and social structure that show one group superiority, power, and
privilege for some, discrimination of the minority of the communities. Based on
the text book of introduction of sociology, sociological definition of racism is
“the attribution of characteristics of superiority to a population sharing
certain physically inherited characteristics. Racism one specific form of
prejudice, focusing of variation among people. 
Racist attitudes become entrenched during the period of western colonial
expansion, but seem also to rest on mechanisms of prejudice and discrimination
found in human societies today”. (Giddens, p315).

            Sociologists
have tried to interpret the relationships among different racial groups though
different theoretical perspectives, and social psychological perspective is one
of the major theoretical lenses.  Social psychologists
have been trying to analysis the impact of prejudice, stereotypes or
discrimination on some sort of society group. In1986, the two sociopsychologists, Ogbu John and Fordham Stgnithia argue that the
negative effect of racism on academic achievement and intellectual development
on racially minority group (Giddens 318). In other words, black students are
not competitive in their school life because if they compute academically in
school, they think themselves like “acting white”, then black students’
underperformances have negative percussion on their socio economics states. for
example, black society get low wage and they work in bad working condition the
majority group of society. Conflict theory is another perspective of inequality
race and ethnicity. In America history, racial and ethnic minorities have been
struggling their socio economic and political quality against dominant group
because the minorities are not exercise and practice their eco-political right.
 For example, even though Vivien Thomas (1910-1985)
was very talented African American surgical technician who innovated new technique
for medical technology, he was working as a janitor with low wage for several years
(“theories of race and ethnicities”). Based on social psychological theories’
Ogbu John and Fordham Stgnithia tried to elaborate the negative outcome of
racial inequality on black students’ academic performance. In 1986 Signithia
Fordham co-authored, along with Ogbu tried to study educational performance of
black students in Washington, D.C, but most students’ performance was too low
as compere to the dominant group. (“John Ogbu”).

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