Under way. So, in an evolutionary manner, the central

Under the influence of the internet
and the constant growth of its users, both the role and the characteristics of marketing
have changed over the years. Nowadays, marketing is involved in understanding
the consumers’ needs and providing products in an adequate way. So, in an
evolutionary manner, the central goal of marketing, is not only providing the
right product, in the right place and time (Gilbert et al., 2008), but also
doing that in real time. For succeeding the above, marketing uses technological
tools, like gathering of data and personalized information, for making the
strategies more efficient, and consumers more approachable in real time, which
is the key element of a successful marketing strategy.

The influencing
power has aggregated in the hands of the consumer. The businesses’ reputation
can be destroyed, fixed or urged ahead by reviews in platforms, tags in videos
or photos and check ins in the social media. The traditional way of buying a
vacation package by a travel agency has changed irreversibly, since that the
mobile phone users, according to the google Consumer Barometer, has increased
to a 91% of people using devices. The google researches indicate that a
percentage of 30, use smartphones to get ideas and inspiration, second better
result after the 34% of users which prefer to use their devices to compare the products
and the prices.

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Tourism System is evolving with the buzzword Smart, which has
become the main purpose of contemporary destinations as long as it creates
opportunities to maximize the value for all interconnected stakeholders. The
Smart Tourism is adopted by cities which develop the infrastructure and
infostructure to collect and share the Big Data. Smart tourism is a remarkable
step in to the evolution of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in
tourism, because the physical and governance dimensions of tourism are entering
the digital playing field, and new levels of intelligence are achieved (Gretzel
et al., 2015). Based on Gretzel (et al., 2015) Smart Tourism is defined as:

“Tourism supported by
integrated efforts at a destination to collect and aggregate/harness data
derived from physical infrastructure, social connections,
government/organizational sources and human bodies/minds in combination with
the use of advanced technologies to transform that data into on-site
experiences and business value-propositions with a clear focus on efficiency,
sustainability and experience enrichment.”

In conclusion, Smart tourism describes the increasing interdependence
of tourism destinations, their industries and with their tourists, arising from
ICT forms, that gather and analyze massive amounts of data to transform them
into value propositions. (Gretzel, U., Sigala, M., Xiang, Z. et al. Electron Markets
(2015)

In order to have Smart Tourism, is needed a Smart Tourist
and a Smart Destination, and there are six characteristics necessary to
consider a destination as Smart. The 6As are the (1) Attractions, natural or artificial, the (2) Accessibility which includes all available transportation and its routes
across the area. (3) Amenities which refer
to all services providing in the area, such as accommodation, gastronomy and
leisure. (4) Available Packages for
the destination, providing uniqueness of the region by intermediaries directly
to the tourists. (5) Activities
available for tourists and inhabitants, which provoke the first ones into
visiting the destination. (6) Ancillary
Services, like bank or postal services, hospital treatment etc., although, these
are not primary intension for tourist but they are essential for a developed
region (Buhalis et al., 2000 as cited in Buhalis, D., Amaranggana, A. et al.,
2014).

 

The blend of Social Media, the Context based and the Mobile (SoCoMo)
Marketing is defined as an advanced marketing methodology to co-create value
for all stakeholders involved, through the use of smart technologies and
content published in social media (Buhalis D., Foerste, M., et al., 2015). The
growing popularity of smartphones gives a leverage to marketers, because of the
Internet of Things (IoT). This term is referring to a network where any smart
device, at any time and in any place, has the ability to connect and to be
identified, in order to locate it and monitor it (Balasubramanian et al., 2002;
Mingjun et al., 2012 as cited in Buhalis, D., Amaranggana, A., et al., 2014).
The trends of the virtual society, especially in the millennials generation,
without excluding X necessarily, shows an exposure of personal information of its
users. Even though, this amount of data is enormous, either with external or internal
context, it allows and makes the personalization possible through the content shared
online and the geo locating systems. However, the marketers have to take into
consideration many aspects, such as the utilization of Search Engine
Optimization during the development of the marketing strategy, despite the
capability of communication, context creation and consumption in real time
(Buhalis, D., Foerste, M., et al., 2015; Wang, D., Xiang, Z., et al., 2012)

 

The ICTs have changed the economic activities in all fields
over the years, especially in Tourism Industry and its structure as known until
the late 2000s. The tourism maturation is strongly connected with the progress
of Communication Technologies. After a path of over three decades and innovations
regarding the tourism support systems like Computer Reservation Systems (CRSs)
and Global Distribution Systems (GDSs), followed the Internet and more precise
the IoTs which change the whole tourism industry structure through the Smartness
(Buhalis, D., Law, R., 2008). Smartness is defined by Buhalis, 2015 as “the glue of interoperable, interconnected
and mutually beneficial systems and stakeholders and provides the infostructure
for the value creation for all”.

The old tourism industry structure is consisted of three
components, the Suppliers, the Intermediaries and the Consumers, changed inevitably.
This resulted of fast-growing technologies, such as the processing speeds, the decreased
roaming charges and especially the Web 2.0, which make products more and more
approachable for consumers and co-creation feasible. The SoCoMo Marketing and
Smart Tourism reengineer the tourism industry by shaping a dynamic relationship
between supplier and consumer, through the social collaboration and sharing of
information, where the creation of value is maximized for both sides in real
time. The tourism experience is of major importance for all stakeholders in the
tourism industry, and is in favor of achieving the excellence, gathering the
context is needed, to process and to analyze it, in order to personalize the
product, and co-create with the consumer. Research indicates that the co-creation
results speculate the needs of potential consumers more closely than ever by
generating ideas (Hoyer et al., 2010).