What is the respiratory system:
The respiratory system is used to transport air into the
lungs and to facilitate the diffusion of oxygen into the blood stream. It also
receives waste carbon dioxide from blood and exhales it.
The respiratory system is made up of upper and lower
respiratory tracts The upper respiratory tract includes the mouth, nose, nasal
cavity, pharynx (wind pipe and food pipe) and larynx or voice box. Each has a
specific function to aid the flow of air into the body.
Types of breathing:
Breathing in is known as inspiration
Breathing out is known as expiration
Description of the ventilation system:
Ventilation is the movement of air between the lungs and the
environment. This happens through inhalation and exhalation.
During ventilation, when you breathe in then your diaphragm
contracts and moves inwards. The space between your chest cavity increases into
which your lungs expand. The mucsles between your ribs help to increase the
My results for peak flow:
Re-adjust the scale on the peak flow meter move
the arrow that indicates the number you achieved on the test. Adjust it so the
marker starts from the bottom of the scale.
In order for this test to be accurate, you must
be stood up.
Then take a deep breath insuring very part of
your lungs have been filled with air.
While you have held your breath make sure to not
let any air out and place your mouth on the mouthpiece between your teeth seal
your lips tightly around it. Make sure your tongue does not block the breathing
hole in the peak flow meter.
Then when you are ready blow out as hard and
fast as you can in a single blow. An important thing to note is that the
length/duration does not need to be long it needs to be quick and with all your
force. To make sure every last bit of air left in your lungs is depleted.
After your breathing out the arrow on the peak
flow meter will go to the results and then record your results in a table.
However the thing to watch out for is if you in
any shape or form may have missed or done the step wrong you will have to start
over again. Such as snizng just before releasing all the air into the peak flow
meter or you could have just missed a step out so therefore re-do the test.
After you think you have done it accurately move
the marker back to the bottom and repeat the experiment at least 2 more times.
The highest of the 3 number is your peak flow. Then take an average.
Diseases that can effect the experiment:
Disease such as cystic fibrosis or asthma these disease can
make your results be different due to the weak lungs these disease carries
possess. Some can be so sever that they cannot even take part in the test. Due
to them not being able to blow hard and fast.
Peak flow (dm3/min)
My lung volume result:
This test involves normal breathing through a
mouthpiece with 100% oxygen for a few minutes.
The amount of nitrogen which is in the air will
always be the same as the nitrogen inside your lungs. As you breathe 100%
oxygen, the nitrogen is flushed out of your lungs and measured as it is washed
out by the oxygen.
Once nitrogen returns to your previous level the
test is over.
This test measures the total lung capacity, all
of the volume of the lungs.
The average total lung capacity of an adult human male is
about 6 litres of air.
My Results for pulse oximeter (% oxygen saturation):
is defined as the ratio of oxy-hemoglobin to the total concentration of
hemoglobin present in the blood (ie Oxy-hemoglobin + reduced hemoglobin).
Oxygen saturation can be measured using a couple of ways from:
A pulse oximeter is a device intended for the
non-invasive measurement of arterial blood oxygen saturation and pulse rate.
Typically it uses two LEDs (light-emitting diodes) generating red and infrared
lights through a translucent part of the body. Bone, tissue, pigmentation, and
venous vessels normally absorb a constant amount of light over time.
Oxy-hemoglobin and its deoxygenated form have significantly different
absorption pattern. The arteriolar bed normally pulsates and absorbs variable
amounts of light during systole and diastole, as blood volume increases and
decreases. The ratio of light absorbed at systole and diastole is translated
into an oxygen saturation measurement.
Normal arterial oxygen is approximately 75 to 100 millimeters of mercury (mm
The rate of fall in oxygen saturation is said to be greater
during obstructive apneas than during breath-holding in wakefulness.
Oxygen saturation practical:
Measure your % oxygen saturation at rest 3 times. Next, hold
your breath for 30 seconds and measure your % oxygen saturation at the end of
the 30 seconds. You will need to take a measurement before taking a breath.
Repeat this measurement 3 times, making sure to recover fully in between each
measurement. Record your results in a table and calculate average values
If you feel light-headed or uncomfortable at any point
whilst holding your breath, stop and take a breath.
% Oxygen Saturation
% Oxygen Saturation after Holding Breath
for 1 minute:
How exercise effects breathing rate:
Exercise increase the need for food and oxygen. Not only
does it increase the need for the essential componenets such as oxygen etc.
this also increases the rate at which energy is needed from food. That is the
reason why the breathing rate and pulse rate increases.
For this test you will need a pulse monitor and will need to
be well seated. And wait around 2-3 minutes. To let your body be relaxed and at
rest. Because even the smallest of things can effect the test. Then using the
pulse monitor count the number of pulses your result. Repeat this method twice
and calculate he average number of pulses per minute and record your results.
This known as the resting heart rate. Stand
up. Immediately measure your pulse rate and record.
Breathing rate at rest:
Breathing rate: 1 min
The exercise a person does can totally depend on a person as
long as it shows a change in there breathing rate for my exercise I did
push-ups continually for the time required. Which was for 1 min each then I
recorded my results:
Measurements after exercise:
The breathing is very different in both circumstances, when
a person is resting the amount of oxygen required for muscle to contract/move
is already enough and any additional does not need to be supplied. In
comparison with exercising as muscles need more oxygen to contract and produce glucose.otherwise
the lactic acid starts to kick in that is what prevents a person from doing
exercise for super long periods of time. Also they are working anaerobically
which increases the chest cavity expands more times to allow the oxygen to be
supplied to the correct muscles allowing them to function.
Function of the ventilation system? how the
ventilation system increases surface area and maintains a concentration
The main function of the respiratory system is because gas
exchange is a reflexive process, a ventilation system is needed to maintain a
concentration gradient in alveoli.
Oxygen is consumed by cells during cellular respiration and carbon
dioxide is produced as a waste product
This means O2 is constantly being removed from the alveoli into
the bloodstream (and CO2 is continually being released)
The lungs function as a ventilation system by continually cycling
fresh air into the alveoli from the atmosphere
This means O2 levels stay high in alveoli (and diffuse into the
blood) and CO2 levels stay low (and diffuse from the blood)
The lungs are also structured to have a very large surface area,
so as to increase the overall rate of gas exchange
Surface area to volume ratio and how this affects diffusion
of oxygen in and carbon dioxide out of all cells?
Surface area and volume ratio the higher the surface area on
a cow and amoeba cell the more the rate of diffusion increases.